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In July 2002 a new EC Preparations Directive came into force requiring suppliers of preparations to consider the environmental impact of their preparations. The…
In July 2002 a new EC Preparations Directive came into force requiring suppliers of preparations to consider the environmental impact of their preparations. The environmental assessment can be made through consideration of the individual substances used in the preparation. A review of additives used in the formulation of metalworking fluids has highlighted that there are a number of substances that give cause for concern, especially surfactants or basefluids that are derivatives of C12‐15 or C13‐15 alcohols, such as ethoxylates, propoxylates and EO/PO copolymers. Some reformulation may be required in order to prevent preparations being classified either as; dangerous for the environment; or as very toxic/toxic/harmful to aquatic organisms; or as may cause long‐term adverse effects in the environment. The new directive will require suppliers of preparations to make available material safety data sheets for preparations classified as dangerous for the environment or for preparations containing at least one dangerous substance at a concentration of = >1 per cent. The new directive will also require suppliers to use new packaging labels for; preparations classified as dangerous for the environment; preparations containing at least one dangerous substance at a concentration of =>1 per cent; and for preparations containing =>0.1 per cent of a substance classified as a sensitiser.
Arthur Schlessinger (1983) suggested that the contradictions and paradoxes of American foreign policy reflected contradictions and paradoxes in the underlying character of…
Arthur Schlessinger (1983) suggested that the contradictions and paradoxes of American foreign policy reflected contradictions and paradoxes in the underlying character of the people. We would go further to suggest that the early years of colonial life, much like the early years of a person's life, had major consequences ever since. The intersection of Puritanism, available land, and eventually the rise of a commercial culture would forge a unique trajectory of what would be called “American Exceptionalism”, reflecting an “American character”, which itself is subject to three paradoxes or polarities, individualism vs. community, toughness vs. compassion, and moralism vs. pragmatism. The effect of this legacy and the dialectical aspect of American character were first evident when Winthrop proclaimed the city on the hill as the new Jerusalem. The legacy of that vision is taking place today in Iraq.
Dr. EASTWOOD'S report to the Local Government Board on this subject is of special interest to the people of this country at the present time in view of the steps that are being taken with the object of checking the spread of tuberculosis, and the undoubted connections that exist between that and other diseases, and the sources and character of the milk supply. In this country little attention has hitherto been paid to the condition of cows or cowsheds, except perhaps in rare instances where the former were obviously diseased, or the latter constituted a public nuisance; while the connection between milk supply and disease has scarcely been recognised by the Legislature and by public authorities, and has been entirely ignored by the general public. For some years past the health authorities in the United States, as well as those of some other countries, have been making very serious efforts to eradicate tuberculosis from dairy herds, if that be possible. The way in which some of the various States and Cities of the Union are attempting to do this is of importance and interest to us for various reasons. Their problems are very much the same as ours. The success or failure of milk regulations in the United States may, therefore, be taken as an indication of the probable success or failure of ours. Such methods are, therefore, valuable as broadly suggesting those which we may usefully adopt or avoid. The United States also send us a large proportion of our oversea meat supply, and any question relating to the general health of dairy herds cannot be dissociated from one affecting the general health of animals that are slaughtered for their meat. It may also be remarked that such questions relate not only to the meat supply from the States, but also to the great cattle ranches of the Southern American continent, in which British and American capital is becoming increasingly employed. The Americans are nothing if not practical. They are almost proverbially unhampered by tradition. They are quick to adopt what may prove to be new remedies for old evils. While the independent control exercised by each State of the Union over its own internal affairs results in the attempted solution of any general problem being presented in almost as many forms.
Diverticular disease of the colon is an acquired disorder of bowel muscle which hypertrophies, that is, it thickens. The hypertrophied muscle causes an increase in…
Diverticular disease of the colon is an acquired disorder of bowel muscle which hypertrophies, that is, it thickens. The hypertrophied muscle causes an increase in pressure in the bowel and the mucosal lining is pushed out (herniates) through the inherently weak points of the muscle to form pockets (diverticulae). The process is rather similar to the egg‐like distortions seen in the side wall of a defective tyre. In most cases, these diverticulae cause no trouble whatsoever, but in a few they may lead to complications of bleeding, infection, abscess formation and even perforation.