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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

John Davies

Copyright licensing has developed throughout the world as the main solution to problems caused by photocopying and electronic copying. This article traces the history of…

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Abstract

Copyright licensing has developed throughout the world as the main solution to problems caused by photocopying and electronic copying. This article traces the history of negotiations between rights owners and users of materials and the establishment of working relationships between authors and users within licensing agencies. It highlights the special importance of copyright management and protection systems to academic and professional publishers. The systems used in the UK, other countries of Europe and the USA are compared and contrasted. The article underlines the enduring value of print publications, while looking forward to the introduction of licences for electronic copying.

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Interlending & Document Supply, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-1615

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

John Davies, Mick Hides and James Powell

This paper focuses on the theme of entrepreneurship education, learning and development and specifically, on the challenge for higher education institutions (HEIs) of…

4610

Abstract

This paper focuses on the theme of entrepreneurship education, learning and development and specifically, on the challenge for higher education institutions (HEIs) of supporting entrepreneurial and enterprising individuals and organisations. This is examined from the perspective of the definition of appropriate development needs of entrepreneurs in small‐ and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs). HEIs are undergoing a phenomenal amount of change driven by the various stakeholders (e.g. government, students and local committees). The government continues to emphasise the importance to the economy of the set up and development of SMEs. If this is to happen then SMEs will need support in developing entrepreneurial and enterprising individuals. This convergence of needs presents the opportunity for HEIs to contribute to this support. A prerequisite for this support is the definition of the development needs of entrepreneurs in SMEs.

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Education + Training, vol. 44 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 30 September 2013

707

Abstract

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The TQM Journal, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

Article
Publication date: 1 September 1998

Glyn Davies and Roy Davies

This is the first part of a detailed annotated chronology of significant events in the history of money in the context of social, economic, political and technological…

1283

Abstract

This is the first part of a detailed annotated chronology of significant events in the history of money in the context of social, economic, political and technological developments from the dawn of civilization until the closing years of the twentieth century. Starting with the origins of money and of banking the chronology moves on to the development of coinage in Asia Minor and its extension by the conquests of Alexander and later Rome before proceeding to the start of the long history of the pound sterling. The origins of paper money in China, the re‐emergence of banking in Europe, the financial effects of various wars and conflicts and the age of exploration, and subsequent developments up to the threshold of the industrial revolution are all covered.

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Journal of Management History, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-252X

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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 1 December 2006

John Morgan and Thomas Davies

This paper reports results of analyses made at an all-female Gulf Arab university measuring the nature and extent of biases in students' evaluation of faculty. Comparisons…

Abstract

This paper reports results of analyses made at an all-female Gulf Arab university measuring the nature and extent of biases in students' evaluation of faculty. Comparisons are made with research reporting the nature of similar relationships in North America. Two issues are investigated: 1) What variables (if any) bias faculty evaluation results at an all-female Arab university? 2) Are biasing variables different in nature or magnitude to those reported at North America universities? Using the population of 13,300 faculty evaluation records collected over two school years at Zayed University, correlations of faculty evaluation results to nine potentially biasing factors are made. Results show biases to faculty evaluation results do exist. However, biases are small, and strikingly similar in nature to those reported at North American universities.

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Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: Gulf Perspectives, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2077-5504

Article
Publication date: 1 October 1971

Who would have thought that John Davies had literary aspirations? Britain's Secretary for Trade and Industry is also, as he tells Richard Brooks, a dab‐hand in the…

Abstract

Who would have thought that John Davies had literary aspirations? Britain's Secretary for Trade and Industry is also, as he tells Richard Brooks, a dab‐hand in the kitchen. His sauces are quite something to behold. Picture by Dmitri Kasterine.

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Industrial Management, vol. 71 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-6929

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1972

Paul Novak

To Russia with trade. Now that the alleged Russian spies have gone and relations between Britain and the Kremlin are gradually returning to what passes as normal, John

Abstract

To Russia with trade. Now that the alleged Russian spies have gone and relations between Britain and the Kremlin are gradually returning to what passes as normal, John Davies is standing by for an invitation to Moscow. The Trade and Industry Secretary, with order forms in his briefcase, was due in the Soviet capital in January. But following the mass expulsions of Russians and their families by the Foreign Secretary Sir Alec Douglas‐Home, the situation—to quote a DTI man—got a bit ‘saggy’. In retaliation, the Russians promptly cancelled plans for the second meeting of the Anglo‐Soviet joint commission on applied science, technology, and trade. Now the department is expecting an invitation any time to enable the meeting—the inaugural gathering was in London in January last year—to take place in the autumn, probably in October. The result, according to information flowing back from our men in the British Embassy in Moscow, could be a dramatic stepping up in Anglo‐Soviet trade for British manufacturers willing to plunge in to what the ministry stress is a tough market place (fainthearts should stop at home).

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Industrial Management, vol. 72 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-6929

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1932

The new protein conversion factors presented in this circular are based upon the most reliable information available regarding the nature and composition of the proteins…

Abstract

The new protein conversion factors presented in this circular are based upon the most reliable information available regarding the nature and composition of the proteins in the materials concerned. Although it is realised that their use will not give values which will express the quantity of protein in the different food materials with absolute accuracy, it is believed that they will give values representing the real protein content more closely than those obtained by the indiscriminate application of the factor 6·25, now in general use. How these factors are to be applied must be left to the discretion of those who wish to use them in their own particular fields.

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British Food Journal, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1931

IN this issue we conclude our symposium on Modern Library Planning, and although it is not as complete as we could wish, it has certainly proved to be one of the most…

Abstract

IN this issue we conclude our symposium on Modern Library Planning, and although it is not as complete as we could wish, it has certainly proved to be one of the most interesting subjects we have been able to deal with in recent years. We regret that lack of space has prevented us from including some interesting details about new libraries, and that we have laid ourselves open to the criticism of over‐crowding. We hope, however, that we shall be able, from time to time, to add further material as the occasion warrants. We had hoped to obtain a description of the Central Library Extension of the Hull Public Libraries, but this has, unfortunately, proved impossible. Lancashire County Library, too, is constructing four new branch libraries, an account of which we should have liked to include. Plymouth may be mentioned as still another library of which the material was not ready in time for our symposium. Also, we are sorry to have had to omit some of the illustrations which librarians have been kind enough to offer us for reproduction. In spite of these omissions, however, we have been able to gather together much that is new and interesting in modern planning, and one of the points that is well worth notice is the willingness of librarians to experiment in new ideas, even if conservatively.

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New Library World, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1942

Twenty‐three years ago the most frequently met among many slogans was “ Food Will Win the War.” To‐day our food problems are fully as important to our defence; but they…

Abstract

Twenty‐three years ago the most frequently met among many slogans was “ Food Will Win the War.” To‐day our food problems are fully as important to our defence; but they present many new aspects. Then our prime duty was to save food : now it is to consume food in the way most conducive to fitness. Our knowledge of nutrition has advanced so rapidly that much of it is too new to have been assimilated into our everyday thought and practice. Yet it is precisely as guidance to everyday use of our familiar foods that the newest knowledge of nutrition can be of most benefit: of benefit both to the one‐third of our people who are officially declared “ ill‐nourished,” and to the great majority of the rest of us as well. For while finding that much of our previously baffling disease and frustration is due to shortage of certain nutritional factors in the food supply, research has also shown that a more scientifically guided use of our everyday foods constitutes a sort of superior chemical engineering of our own mechanisms which can increase the vitality and efficiency even of those people who are already healthy and efficient. The relations of nutrition to the functioning of the mind are, of course, more difficult of controlled investigation and not yet as objectively demonstrable as to the effects of food upon bodily functions and length of life. But careful research is now showing that even within the range of fully normal conditions, our daily food choices have much more important effects than science ever previously supposed upon that internal chemistry that directly environs and conditions all our life processes. The blood is the great mediator of this internal environment, and the same blood circulates through the brain as through all the other organs of the body, bringing its help or its hindrance to both mental and muscular activities. True there is much which remains to be clarified by further research; but the already established findings, of recent and current nutritional investigation, need only to be more widely known and used in order to make our people much stronger for the defence of our civilisation, and for its permanent advancement when the emergency has passed. In our “ intellectual climate ” of the moment there is still a good deal of inertia because the newest knowledge is not yet sufficiently understood, while at the same time the new view is perhaps being over‐coloured by some writers. This paper therefore does not seek to add more assertions; but rather to review objectively the evidence on what the Council of National Defence has announced as one of our present‐day needs, “ to make the American people nutrition‐conscious in terms of the nutritional science of to‐day.” Nutrition presents three major aspects : (1) that in which food serves as fuel to supply energy for the activities of the bodily machine; (2) that of the assimilation of certain food constituents into structural material first for the growth and later for the upkeep of the body tissues; and (3) the utilisation of food substances either directly or indirectly to serve the body in those self‐regulatory processes by which it maintains its relatively “ steady states ” or essential internal environment. It is in its energy aspect that nutrition has most fully arrived at the status of an exact science. Expert opinion is well agreed on the fundamental principles of the energy transformations in the body, on the values of the foodstuffs as sources of energy, and on at least the broad lines of theory as to the influence of different bodily conditions in determining the energy need. On the latter points, especially, many laboratories are actively engaged in increasing the precision of present knowledge, and at least three well‐endowed nutrition laboratories—those of the Carnegie Institution, of the Russell Sage Institute, and of the Rochester University Department of Vital Economics—are devoting their resources especially to the perfection of the energy aspects of nutritional knowledge. The protein aspect of nutritional research has also reached a relatively mature status with well‐defined objectives. Among many other laboratories working in this field, that of the United States Department of Agriculture is giving special attention to the purification and description of the proteins themselves; and the laboratory of physiological chemistry of the University of Illinois is very actively investigating the nutritional relationships of the individual amino acids, with the generous support of the Rockefeller Foundation. We may look forward with confidence and great gratification to a presumably fairly near future in which this aspect of nutritional need can be stated quantitatively in terms of ten individually indispensable amino acids. The catalysts which make the chemical processes in the body go fast enough to support life overlap and in a measure integrate the subject matter divisions of the chemistry of nutrition. They function in the energy aspect; and in their own chemical constitutions they are derivatives of proteins (or their amino acids), mineral elements, and vitamins. This very active field of research is quite as frequently classified with general biochemistry as with nutrition. Until its current era of “ newer knowledge,” the chemistry of food and nutrition had for several decades faced the dilemma that foods could be analysed as elaborately, and their composition accounted for with as close an approach to one hundred per cent., as other natural materials; and yet nutrition could not be sustained with pure mixtures of the substances that the analyses revealed. Seeking deeper insights, chemists broadened their research methods to include the systematic use of feeding experiments with laboratory animals, carried on with as careful attention to accuracy of controls as in other experimental researches in the exact sciences. This extension of method in chemical research has been rewarded with a rapid series of discoveries of substances which are essential to our nutrition, but whose very existence was, until recent years, either entirely unknown or only vaguely apprehended. Neither in chemical nature nor in nutritional function do these substances have much in common with each other. That they came to be called by the group name vitamins was not the result of their being naturally related, but rather of the two circumstances, (1) that they were all discovered through the use of the same development of research method, and (2) that the discoveries of their existence and importance followed each other too rapidly for physical isolation and chemical identification and nomenclature to keep pace. The latter, however, are steadily catching up, and in several cases new names, which are individually distinctive of either the chemical structures or the historic associations of the substances, have been coined and are coming into general use.

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British Food Journal, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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