The literature is replete with normative models of system development methodologies. While these methodologies may be sound and workable in the United States, they may not be appropriate for other cultures. This paper proposes that system development methodologies must account for cultural considerations in the development and transfer of Information Systems (IS) outside the United States (US). Planning for overseas system development requires careful assessment and incorporation of cultural implications into the development methodology. How should IS be developed for use in other cultures? What should a system developer consider to be successful in an overseas environment?
The United States has been a dominant force in industrial and economic affairs worldwide. Recently, this dominance has eroded to a point which concerns most US…
The United States has been a dominant force in industrial and economic affairs worldwide. Recently, this dominance has eroded to a point which concerns most US manufacturers. What has happened to the US dominant position in manufacturing? Why has this competitiveness crisis emerged? This crisis is analysed the use of computer technology and computer integrated manufacturing are examined as possible solutions to the crisis. Final remarks concerning the major technical and behavioural problems are presented in the conclusions.
In 1912 Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins reopened the whole question, and investigated again the effects on animals of a synthetic diet. Again he demonstrated the importance of the addition of milk, and in addition he pointed out the importance of the proteins and that some were capable of maintaining life whilst others were inadequate so that animals failed to grow when fed on them. Through this work he systematised previous work and also added an important contribution to our knowledge of nutrition by his discovery of the essential amino acids. These have been extensively studied in recent years, and the following are now regarded as being essential, according to a table by William C. Rose:—
– This paper aims to provide a history of relational perspectives in marketing practice from the nineteenth through to the twentieth century.
This paper aims to provide a history of relational perspectives in marketing practice from the nineteenth through to the twentieth century.
This paper engages in a systematic reading of published histories of retailing practice using the key attributes of transaction and relationship marketing as a conceptual framework to interrogate whether earlier practitioners were committed to either approach.
This paper supplements the studies conducted in other domains that undermine the idea that relational practices were rejected in favor of transaction-type approaches during the industrialization of the USA and Canada.
The content of this paper provides textbook authors with a means to fundamentally revise the way they discuss relationship marketing. It has a similar pedagogic utility.
This paper studies the writings of practitioners known to be pioneers of retailing to unravel their business philosophies, comparing and contrasting these to known attributes of relationship marketing. It deals with an historical period that has not previously been studied in this level of detail by marketing historians.
Food—national dietary standards—is a sensitive index of socio‐economic conditions generally; there are others, reflecting different aspects, but none more sensitive. A country that eats well has healthy, robust people; the housewife who cooks hearty, nourishing meals has a lusty, virile family. It is not surprising, therefore, that all governments of the world have a food policy, ranking high in its priorities and are usually prepared to sacrifice other national policies to preserve it. Before the last war, when food was much less of an instrument of government policy than now—there were not the shortages or the price vagaries—in France, any government, whatever its colour, which could not keep down the price of food so that the poor man ate his fill, never survived long; it was—to make use of the call sign of those untidy, shambling columns from our streets which seem to monopolize the television news screens—“out!” Lovers of the Old France would say that the country had been without stable government since 1870, but the explanation for the many changes in power in France in those pre‐war days could be expressed in one word—food!
If child custody decisions are based on erroneous beliefs, family courts may not be acting in the best interests of children. This study examined family court…
If child custody decisions are based on erroneous beliefs, family courts may not be acting in the best interests of children. This study examined family court professionals' beliefs about family violence. Respondents (N = 410) of diverse professions, including child custody mediators, evaluators, and therapists, family law attorneys and judges, victim advocates and university students, completed a 10‐item multiple‐choice quiz. Results revealed low rates of correct responding, with respondents correctly answering approximately three out of 10 items on average, based on current research in the field. Overall, response rates were highly consistent with the discredited patriarchal paradigm. Shelter workers and victim advocates had the lowest average score, and men were found to have slightly higher scores than women. More troubling, students' scores were not significantly lower than those of family court professionals. Implications are discussed with respect to decision‐making in the context of child custody disputes.
Although a sheet of viscose film, such as cellophane, is so compact in structure as to be quite airtight, experimental work has shown that water vapour can evaporate as quickly from a vessel closed with it as from the open container. A wrapper composed of viscose film can be rendered impermeable to moisture vapour by covering the surfaces with a very thin layer of moisture‐proof transparent coating which often contains, as an essential ingredient, a small quantity of wax. It is wrappings of the latter “ moisture‐proof ” type which are normally used round cigarette cartons and often round biscuits and sweet packages. Unbroken films of wax are resistant to the passage of moisture vapour, and waxed papers are therefore largely used for the protection of foodstuffs. Not all waxed papers, or so‐called moisture‐vapour‐proof transparent wrappings, are satisfactorily impermeable to moisture vapour, and it is essential to test such materials to determine their actual protective powers. While complete protection against moisture exchange is advisable for most types of goods liable to dry out or for those which will deliquesce, it should be realised that there may be other factors that will prevent their being used. Some goods coated with cane sugar are found to keep best if in packings where they can “ breathe.” If, owing to a rise in temperature, the atmosphere in the moisture‐vapour‐proof wrapping should become saturated with moisture vapour, this would be deposited in droplets on the surface of the goods if the package were suddenly cooled. A dilute solution of sugar might be formed at the point of deposition, which would then be a favourable medium for the growth of aerial moulds and micro‐organisms. In many cases wrongly wrapped foods betray their deterioration by easily apparent signs, such as the hardness of bread, the stickiness of sweets or the odour of putrificd material. It is, however, quite possible for a loss in quality to occur which is only noticeable in flavour deterioration when the article is consumed, and an important instance of this is tea. Care must be taken that the wrapping itself does not impart a foreign flavour to the foodstuff packed in it, or induce one through permitting or accelerating chemical changes, such as oxidation (development of rancidity). Some of the transparent moisture‐vapour‐proof wrappings on the market have a strong flavour liable to contaminate goods wrapped in them, as have some waxed papers and ordinary “ boards ” used for cartons. Printing inks and adhesives used on cartons may also affect the flavour and odour of foodstuffs, unless properly chosen and properly used on the cartons. These odours will penetrate wrappers if the latter are not airtight, and instances are known where really expensive articles of food have been spoiled in flavour because strong‐smelling strawboards have been used as the foundation of the very elaborate and decorative boxes in which the foodstuff was packed. Rancidity development in fatty foods may be accelerated in several ways. It is well known that sunlight promotes the formation of rancidity, and fatty foods in ordinary transparent wrappings may deteriorate on this account. Attempts have been made to produce coloured transparent wrappers which will absorb the active light rays, and so prevent rancidity developing while at the same time allowing the goods wrapped to be visible. Some of these wrappers were so dark in colour that they were valueless for display purposes, but, according to advertised claims, some golden yellow transparent wrappers of good transparency and protective power are now available. There are available, however, wrappers treated with anti‐oxidants of the oat‐flour type which are claimed to arrest the development of surface rancidity of fatty foods packed in them. The last generation has seen the advent of scientific control and development in the catering business. Individual restaurants or hotels cannot afford to employ chemists, and with the exception of the large organisations owning a series of restaurants, the hotelier or restaurateur has to rely on the efforts of consultants or on the makers of the plant and machinery installed in his establishment. This help has been very valuable particularly as the amount of mechanical aids in restaurant kitchens has become during the last half century very considerable. Such devices as mechanical beaters or whippers, small doughing machines, mechanically or electrically controlled refrigerators, are but examples. Possibly one of the most interesting developments has been in the installation of mechanical washing machines for plates, dishes, cups, knives, etc. The number of pieces of china and cutlery is perhaps not appreciated. The modest two‐course lunch means that twelve articles, all of different sizes, shapes or materials of construction, must be washed; the seven‐course dinner requires 30–40 articles. The organisation to provide these articles in a steady stream sufficient for the needs of some hundreds of customers in the course of an hour or so must be very complicated, and one of the important cogs in the machine is “ washing up.” In the domestic scullery, unless particular precautions are taken, hot, hard water and soap are taken, and, by their admixture, produce a shiny scum which is mixed up with the soapy water. This scum and the water itself become loaded with grease during the washing process and the china is removed, carrying on its surface dirty, greasy, soapy water with its complement of soap scum. These are then wiped off with a drying cloth clean at first, but becoming gradually impregnated with grease, soap and scum, with the result that the surface of the china is finally covered with a thin transparent film of these objectionable substances. If the china, after removal from the wash‐bowl and when still wetted with grease‐laden soapy water, were rinsed under the hot tap until all this wash water were removed and replaced by clean hot water, and the china were then allowed to dry of its own accord, it would be chemically free from grease and would require no polishing. It would, moreover, not have to be handled at all. The essential factors of mechanical washing are therefore : (1) A detergent treatment that will emulsify all greasy substances and dislodge adherent food debris. Soap and suitable alkalis are used in this treatment. (2) A rinse treatment using clean hot water that will remove all detergent water from the china. (3) A drying treatment that is spontaneous and is carried out without touching the articles. Thus the production of washed articles entails a machine washer supplied with hot, softened water and suitable detergents; controls of rate of water supply, temperature, injection of detergent and rate of movement of china through the machine are of course all automatic. Treatment is generally in four stages—first a detergent treatment by high pressure jets, then a first and a second rinse treatment again by pressure jets, and finally a last rinse treatment provided by the incoming clean, hot, softened water taken directly from supply. The clean china is now so hot that within a few seconds of its emergence from the machine it is dry. It is then ready for use. It is only within the last century that “ gastronomy ” has been popularised, for the bulk of the population is now catered for with more care than ever before. The presentation of meals has advanced enormously, and the palatability of food has been studied with far more concern than ever before. Palatability, the controlling factor in eating, is a complicated attribute, and includes all those factors which can be considered as appealing to the senses. Sensation‐producing qualiites are odour, flavour, texture, temperature and appearance, appearance including form, design, size and colour. Palatability is no sure guide to food selection—“ Eat what you like and you need have no further concern about your food ”—modern scientific thought has demonstrated the fallacy of such a statement; nevertheless there are more factors of importance than the “ completeness ” of a food. To be informed that a mass of food contained all the necessary factors for proper nutrition has no effect on the gastric secretions, but the odour of a frying steak may make the mouth water : a badly baked meat pic, no matter how nutritious, lacks the appeal of one with the colour properly developed. This catering for masses of people has raised a number of important questions which the chemist has answered in many cases. As in the case of chain‐stores, where the public expects to get the same goods at the same price, be they purchasing in Manchester or Sidmouth, so in the case of chain‐restaurants the public demand the same standard of goods wherever they may happen to be eating. The consequence of this is that the cooking of a potato, the roasting of a joint, the frying of a fillet of fish, the production of a poached egg on toast, have to be standardised, and the chemist has collaborated with the engineer to produce the plant and machinery which will ensure, within reasonable limits, that the public be satisfied in so far as this consideration is concerned. Only a scientist can answer such questions as : for how many hours and under what conditions may a tin of sardines be kept after opening? What is the “ life ” of a meat pic in summer and what in winter? How long can Russian salad prepared under standard conditions be kept? What are the best conditions for the preparation and keeping hot of boiled cabbage : Incidentally the scientist has been forced to give attention to many problems outside the realm proper of food : for example, the standardisation of the crockery and glasses to reduce breakage to a minimum, the question of the colours to be used for the plates and cups and saucers, so that fading by the chemical treatment or by mechanical abrasion in washing or in general use be brought to a minimum. The solution of problems of the service of food in restaurants is not perhaps a spectacular field of work for the scientist, but, in view of the millions of meals served daily in England, its importance can hardly be over‐estimated. Such are some of the impacts of Science on Food. The sketch is naturally incomplete and many aspects have not been mentioned at all. The application of new scientific knowledge to food problems is continually assuming greater importance in the feeding of the people. This does not imply that science is supplanting the art of the chef; it may modify, perhaps simplify, the processes concerned with the preparation of food, but its main function is to interpret the principles on which the art is founded, and to adapt the accumulated knowledge to modern conditions.
We develop the concept of the slave-trade balance of payments and generate its table for the United States for 1790–1860. In the process, we construct new data for the…
We develop the concept of the slave-trade balance of payments and generate its table for the United States for 1790–1860. In the process, we construct new data for the slave trade, including both the physical movement and revenue figures, and we analyze these numbers. The balance of payments includes slave imports, carrying trade in slaves, purchases of slaves that fail to be imported, outfitting and provisioning slave ships, and slave-ship sales. The slave-trade balance is integrated into the standard balance of payments. Among the findings are the following: slave imports were dominated by natural growth except for one decade; US ships had the greater role than foreign ships in the import trade, but were of small—and eventually nil—consequence in the carrying trade; federal and state laws to prohibit the slave trade in all its aspects were generally effective; and the slave-trade balance of payments was a small component of the overall balance.
Factors which influence consumer spending, among the most sought after in any field of market research, things people buy and why, is valuable data on which much industrial planning, advertising techniques and marketing is based, but in no other field of trade is consumer preference so closely related to pure economics, i.e., value received in money terms, as in food. With most other commodities, from clothes to cars, hair‐do's to houses, factors affecting consumer choice have different results; appearance, aesthetic quality and neighbourly competition, all play a part, though appearance in a few foods is not entirely without significance, e.g., white bread. Present high levels of consumer spending are said by politicians to be a danger to the country's economy; a more prosaic thought would be that Government spending, or squandering, constituted the greater threat. In the main, factors which influence household food expenditure are essentially down to earth—palatability, digestibility, keeping quality and how far a food will go in the preparation of meals, its value in money terms. The king‐pin in all market research on food must be the woman of the house; it is her laying out of the household purse that determines the amount of food expenditure and the varieties purchased week by week. A housewife's choice, however, is a complex of her family's likes and dislikes, rarely her own, and also determined by the amount allocated from her purse for this part of the household budget and the number of mouths she has to feed. Any tendency to experiment, to extend the variety of food, is only possible with a well‐filled purse; with a large family, a common complaint is of monotony in the diet. A factor of immense importance nowadays is whether the housewife is employed or not, and whether whole‐time or part‐time, and which part of the day she can be in her own home. To this may be attributed, as much as anything, the rise in consumption of convenience foods. Fortunately for the purposes of reasonable accuracy in the results of enquiries, housewives form a class, reliable and steady, unlikely to be contaminated by the palsied opinions of the so‐called lunatic fringe in this unquiet age. Any differences in food choice are likely to be regional, and settled dietary habits, passed on from one generation to another. Statistics from the National Food Surveys show the extent of these, and also consumer preferences as far as food commodity groups are concerned. The Surveys have been running long enough to show something of consumer trends but, of course, they do not exhibit reasons—why consumers buy and use certain foods, their attitudes to food marketing practices, and, in particular, to advertising. Advertising claims, misleading undoubtedly but within the law, have long been a source of controversy between those who worship at the shrine of truth and others less particular. Elsewhere, we review a special study of consumer reactions to aspects of the grocery trade in the U.S.A., and note that 32 per cent do not accept advertisements as being true, but 85 per cent find them interesting and informative. Advertising practices are probably subject to less statutory control in the United States than here, and the descriptions and verbiage certainly reach greater heights of absurdity, but the British housewife is likely to be no more discerning, able “to read between the lines”, than her counterpart in that country. A major difference, however, is that in Britain, more houswives prepare and cook meals for their families than in the United States. The greatest importance of advertising is in the introductory phase of a commodity; new and more vigorous advertising is necessary later to delay the onset of the decline phase of the commodity's life cycle; to ensure that sales can be maintained to prevent rises in supply costs. Advertising helps considerably in the acceptance of a branded food, but housewives tend to ignore cut‐throat competition between rival brands, and what weans a consumer from a brand is not competition in advertising, nor even new and more attractive presentation, but reduction in real price. The main pre‐occupation of the woman of the house is food adequacy, and especially that her children will have what she considers conforms to a nutritious diet, without argument or rebellion on the part of her progeny and without distinction. She knows that bulk foods, carbohydrates, are not necessarily nutritious, although her ideas of which foods contain vitamins or minerals or other important nutrient factors tends to be hazy. She does not pretend to enjoy shopping for food and therefore tends to follow a routine; it saves time and worry. Especially is this so with young married women, who may have to take small children along. Each housewife has her own mental standard of assessing “value”, and would have difficulty in defining it. Nutritional value forms part of it, however, in most women, who connote their food provision with health. The greatest concern is not necessarily positive health, but prevention or reduction of obesity, which is seen among adult members of the family, especially growing girls, as an adverse effect on their appearance, and the types of clothes they can wear. A few of the more intelligent families have an indefinable fear of ischaemic heart disease and its relation to food. When they take positive steps to control the diet for these purposes, they are quite frequently in the wrong direction and rather confused even when this is done on medical advice.