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Michael Preston-Shoot, Fiona O’Donoghue and John Binding
The first purpose of this paper is to update the core data set of self-neglect safeguarding adult reviews (SAR) and accompanying thematic analysis. A second purpose is to…
The first purpose of this paper is to update the core data set of self-neglect safeguarding adult reviews (SAR) and accompanying thematic analysis. A second purpose is to rebalance the narrative about adult safeguarding and self-neglect by highlighting two case studies where the practice was informed by SAR and the evidence-base of best practice.
Further published reviews are added to the core data set, drawn from the websites of Safeguarding Adults Boards (SAB). Thematic analysis is updated using the four domains used previously. Two case studies are presented, using the four domains of direct practice, team around the person, organisational support and governance, to demonstrate that positive outcomes can be achieved when practice and support for practitioners align with the evidence-base.
Familiar findings emerge from the thematic analysis and reinforce the evidence-base of good practice with individuals who self-neglect and for policies and procedures with which to support those practitioners working with such cases. The case studies are illustrative examples of what can be achieved and signpost SABs and SAR authors to question what enables and what obstructs best practice.
A national database of reviews completed by SABs has been established (https://nationalnetwork.org.uk) with the expectation that, in time, this will become a comprehensive resource. It is possible, however, that this data set is incomplete. Drawing together the findings from the reviews nonetheless builds on what is known about the components of effective practice, and effective policy and organisational arrangements for practice. Although individual reviews might comment on good practice alongside shortfalls, no published SARs have been found that were commissioned specifically to learn lessons from what had worked out well. More emphasis could be given to what might be learned from such cases.
Answering the question “why” remains a significant challenge for SAR not only where concerns about how agencies worked together prompted review but also where positive outcomes have been achieved. The findings confirm the relevance of the evidence-base for effective practice, but SARs are limited in their analysis of what enables and what obstructs the components of best practice. Greater explicit use of case studies with positive outcomes might enable learning about what enables positive system change.
The paper extends the thematic analysis of available reviews that focus on work with adults who self-neglect, further reinforcing the evidence base for practice. The paper presents two case studies where practice and the context within which practitioners were working closely aligned to the evidence-base for best practice. The paper suggests that SABs and SAR authors should focus explicitly on what enables and what obstructs the realisation of best practices.
King, A. General Policy of E.P.A. O.E.E.C. European Productivity Agency. Report on the second meeting of technical information officers, 1955, pp. 59–65. [The information…
King, A. General Policy of E.P.A. O.E.E.C. European Productivity Agency. Report on the second meeting of technical information officers, 1955, pp. 59–65. [The information activities of the E.P.A. fall into two categories: the exchange of information and the promotion of new developments through personal contacts. An example of the latter is the study being made of all aspects of automation. It is not enough to exchange technical information between scientists, it must be taken to non‐technical persons, and the small firms must be encouraged to make use of it. In addition there is need of more study of the non‐technical aspects of productivity: production engineering, work study, and the economic, social, and psychological implications. These are best tackled by teams of experts drawn from different disciplines.]
John M. Barron, Mark C. Berger and Dan A. Black
Charles J. Coate and Mark C. Mitschow
Economic activity is typically provided by three distinct sectors. For-profit entities seek to maximize owner profit by providing various goods and services. The…
Economic activity is typically provided by three distinct sectors. For-profit entities seek to maximize owner profit by providing various goods and services. The not-for-profit sector consists of private or quasi-public entities that provide goods and services without regard to making an explicit profit. Government entities extract resources from the economy and redistribute them to achieve certain public goods.
Recently a fourth or gray sector has developed that combines elements of the other three. As a corporate form that explicitly sacrifices profit maximization to advance some predetermined social good, benefit corporations are one example of this gray sector. Owners are aware of this dual mission but still invest as the social objectives are consistent with their personal goals. Thus, the benefit corporation can be viewed as a for-profit entity subject to an explicit social welfare constraint.
Since the late 1960s governments have spent trillions of dollars on a wide variety of social welfare programs. Nevertheless, poverty persists and government altruism may have made poverty more intractable in some respects. Economic logic suggests that providing social welfare transfer payments with few work or training requirements can make recipients dependent and enable dysfunctional behavior. Over time this may rob recipients of opportunities for labor and self-sufficiency.
Benefit corporations are typically viewed as a form of socially responsible investment that leverages the economic advantages of market-based systems. To date, however, little has been written about the benefit corporation’s potential ethical dimensions. The purpose of this paper is to provide a moral argument based in Catholic Social Teaching to support the use of benefit corporations as a substitute for some government service programs. Our arguments are centered on the primary principle of Human Dignity and will include, but not be limited to: Work, Solidarity and there role social and economic society as well as the Role of Government or Subsidiarity (including the Welfare State).
Charles J. Coate and Mark C. Mitschow
There is significant debate regarding the necessity for and existence of moral exemplars in business. We believe it is both necessary and beneficial for free market…
There is significant debate regarding the necessity for and existence of moral exemplars in business. We believe it is both necessary and beneficial for free market economic systems to be viewed as a moral exemplar by business students, educators, practitioners, and ethicists. Since much of the world operates under some type of free market economic paradigm, it is important that there be a moral base for these operations.
Free market economic systems are usually defended on utilitarian grounds, that they produce better results than other systems. In this chapter we take a micro approach and show that free market economic systems support individual rights and dignity. This is important because business persons need moral exemplars based in their own discipline’s theory to recognize the vocational aspects of business. That is, business persons must understand why free market systems serve the greater good.
Free market systems are not a complete or perfect moral exemplar. Business persons need to know the limits of the economic system and find other moral exemplars for their role as citizens. We illustrate this with the discussion of monopoly and Option for the Poor.
Catholic Social Teaching (CST), the moral exemplar of the Roman Catholic Church, has been developed over many centuries. The purpose of this chapter is to show how free market economic outcomes are compatible with CST goals. Illustrating the consistency between CST and free market systems provides compelling evidence that such systems are indeed a moral exemplar for business persons.
Economists usually try to avoid making moral judgements, at least in their professional capacity. Positive economics is seen as a way of analysing economic problems, in as…
Economists usually try to avoid making moral judgements, at least in their professional capacity. Positive economics is seen as a way of analysing economic problems, in as scientific a manner as is possible in human sciences. Economists are often reluctant to be prescriptive, most seeing their task as presenting information on the various options, but leaving the final choice, to the political decision taker. The view of many economists is that politicians can be held responsible for the morality of their actions when making decisions on economic matters, unlike unelected economic advisors, and therefore the latter should limit their role.
The debate about in equality has concentrated on trade and/or technology as potential explanations. This paper argues that openness or globalisation in general, instead of…
The debate about in equality has concentrated on trade and/or technology as potential explanations. This paper argues that openness or globalisation in general, instead of the narrow definition of trade, is an important component missing from the discussion about in equality trends. To be specific, openness allows firms to increase their fallback position by presenting a credible threat of relocation. Firms do not have to actually relocate; they just have to present a credible threat to undermine worker’s welfare. This area of research, currently underdeveloped, could potentially improve our discussion about in equality.
Economists have been reluctant to interpret as purely causal the relationship between educational attainment and earnings. In an influential paper in which they use…
Economists have been reluctant to interpret as purely causal the relationship between educational attainment and earnings. In an influential paper in which they use quarter of birth as an instrument for educational attainment in wage equations, Angrist and Krueger interpret their estimates as the causal impact of education on earnings. To support this interpretation, they argue that compulsory school attendance laws alone account for the association between quarter of birth and earnings. In this work we present new evidence suggesting that this interpretation may not be well-founded. We document an association between quarter of birth and earnings in cohorts that were not bound by compulsory school attendance laws. Moreover, we find that the association between quarter of birth and educational attainment was weaker in more recently-born cohorts while no similar pattern existed in the association between quarter of birth and earnings. Our results call into question the validity of any causal inferences based on Angrist and Krueger's estimates regarding the effect of education on earnings.