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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

John B. Kaneene, Steven Haggblade and David L Tschirley

The papers in this special issue measure the pace of change and the employment consequences of rapid ongoing transformation of Sub-Saharan Africa’s agri-food system. After…

Abstract

Purpose

The papers in this special issue measure the pace of change and the employment consequences of rapid ongoing transformation of Sub-Saharan Africa’s agri-food system. After quantitatively assessing the pace of change in consumer diets, a succession of papers examines the resulting change in public health, employment structure, job skill requirements and the educational challenges facing agricultural education and training (AET) institutions charged with preparing African youth with workforce skill required to succeed in the continent’s rapidly changing, rapidly growing agri-food system. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Changes in consumer demand and workforce skill needs emerge from a quantitative projection model using Living Standards Measurement Studies in half a dozen countries in Eastern and Southern Africa. Based on surveys of employers, graduates and staff at AET institutions in a range of 14 different countries, the analyses evaluate the workforce skill needs and educational challenges for preparing Africa’s emerging youth bulge to seek productive careers on the farm and in post-farm segments of the agri-food system. Throughout, the papers contrast findings from countries at different stages in the food system transformation using a typology developed in this paper.

Findings

The concluding paper in this issue by Kabasa, Kirsten and Minde summarizes key findings emerging from this collection.

Originality/value

The contributions in this special issue report original research based on analysis of LSMS data and on interviews with agri-food system employers, agricultural education institutions and professionals in over a dozen African countries.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

John David Kabasa, Johann Kirsten and Isaac Minde

African agri-food systems are undergoing major structural change in response to growing urbanization, rising incomes and shifting patterns of food consumption. The purpose…

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Abstract

Purpose

African agri-food systems are undergoing major structural change in response to growing urbanization, rising incomes and shifting patterns of food consumption. The purpose of this paper is to explore four major dimensions of this surprisingly rapid structural shift in African food systems.

Design/methodology/approach

This chapter synthesizes the six chapters and in addition discusses future implications for agricultural education and training (AET) in Africa.

Findings

AET institutions face multiple pressures as a result of these ongoing changes. High fertility rates have produced a youth bulge that currently strains educational capacity at all levels and places huge pressures accommodating 700 million youth job market entrants over the coming 30 years.

Research limitations/implications

Countries vary considerably in a number of socio-economic and political dimensions making it difficult to completely generalize on each and every issue. Cross-country comparison to the level of determining which country is better than the other in many of the variables is difficult.

Originality/value

Synthesis of key parameters to consider in increasing the relevance of AET institutions in Africa.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

Isaac Minde, Stephanus Terblanche, Bernard Bashaasha, Ignacio Casper Madakadze, Jason Snyder and Anthony Mugisha

Agricultural education and training (AET) institutions will play a strategic role in helping to prepare Africa’s rapidly growing youth populations for productive careers…

Abstract

Purpose

Agricultural education and training (AET) institutions will play a strategic role in helping to prepare Africa’s rapidly growing youth populations for productive careers in agriculture and related agri-businesses. The purpose of this paper is to examine the magnitude of skills and youth employment needs emanating from high-population growth rates. It then explores how agricultural education institutions are responding to these challenges in four different countries at different levels of food system development: South Africa tier 1, Tanzania in tier 2 and Malawi and Uganda in tier 3.

Design/methodology/approach

Demographic and school enrollment data provide information on the magnitude of job market entrants at different levels of education while Living Standards Measurement Studies in the respective countries provide a snapshot of current skill requirements in different segments of the agri-food system. In order to evaluate AET responses, the authors have conducted country-level reviews of AET systems as well as in-depth assessments at key tertiary AET institutions in each of the four case study countries.

Findings

Growth rates in primary school enrollments are high in sub-Saharan Africa. At the same time, because of budgetary constraints, transition rates decline rapidly – about 40 percent from primary to secondary and 7 percent from secondary to tertiary. As a result, substantial numbers of primary and secondary school graduates seek jobs.

Research limitations/implications

The case study countries are limited to four. Had more financial resources and time been available, researchers could have spread further afield and in so doing increasing the precision of the results.

Originality/value

Estimation of the number of primary and secondary school leavers seeking employment because of failure to proceed to the next level of education. Estimation of the level of education shares in the various components of the agri-food system.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

Steven Haggblade, Antony Chapoto, Aissetou Drame-Yayé, Sheryl L. Hendriks, Stephen Kabwe, Isaac Minde, Johnny Mugisha and Stephanus Terblanche

The purpose of this paper is to examine the career trajectories of 66 distinguished African agricultural professionals in order to explore how agricultural education and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the career trajectories of 66 distinguished African agricultural professionals in order to explore how agricultural education and training (AET) institutions can better motivate and prepare youth for productive careers in Africa’s rapidly changing agrifood system.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on in-depth qualitative interviews with these role models, the paper explores the answers to two critical questions: How can Africa motivate its youth to consider careers in agriculture and agribusiness? How can AET institutions better prepare youth for productive careers in agribusiness?

Findings

Rural youth enter agribusiness careers in response to clearly perceived rural needs coupled with demonstrable profitability of modern agricultural and agribusiness opportunities. In contrast, urban youth embark on agricultural career paths in response to inspiring science education, particularly practical applications in biology, coupled with emerging awareness of the range of professional opportunities afforded by modern agribusiness and commercial agriculture.

Research limitations/implications

The study relies on the basic premise that seasoned, successful professionals – from the private and public sector – can offer useful insights into ways of improving job preparation training for the youth of today seeking careers in the food system of tomorrow. The approach assumes that the role models have both the practical experience and forward-looking vision necessary to identify key elements of preparation likely to benefit future job market entrants.

Originality/value

This paper relies on primary interviews with distinguished agricultural professionals from 14 different African countries.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

David L Tschirley, Jason Snyder, Michael Dolislager, Thomas Reardon, Steven Haggblade, Joseph Goeb, Lulama Traub, Francis Ejobi and Ferdi Meyer

The purpose of this paper is to understand how the unfolding diet transformation in East and Southern Africa is likely to influence the evolution of employment within its…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand how the unfolding diet transformation in East and Southern Africa is likely to influence the evolution of employment within its agrifood system (AFS) and between that system and the rest of the economy. To briefly consider implications for education and skill acquisition.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors link changing diets to employment structure. The authors then use alternative projections of diet change over 15- and 30-year intervals to develop scenarios on changes in employment structure.

Findings

As long as incomes in ESA continue to rise at levels near those of the past decade, the transformation of their economies is likely to advance dramatically. Key features will be: sharp decline in the share of the workforce engaged in farming even as absolute numbers rise modestly, sharp increase in the share engaged in non-farm segments of the AFS, and an even sharper increase in the share engaged outside the AFS. Within the AFS, food preparation away from home is likely to grow most rapidly, followed by food manufacturing, and finally by marketing, transport, and other AFS services. Resource booms in Mozambique and (potentially) Tanzania are the main factor that may change this pattern.

Research limitations/implications

Clarifying policy implications requires renewed research given the rapid changes in Africa over the past 15 years.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to explicitly link changing diets to changing employment within the AFS.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 May 2020

Catherine Komugisha Tindiwensi, John C. Munene, Arthur Sserwanga, Ernest Abaho and Rebecca Namatovu-Dawa

This article investigates the relationship between farm management skills, entrepreneurial bricolage and market orientation in smallholder farms.

Abstract

Purpose

This article investigates the relationship between farm management skills, entrepreneurial bricolage and market orientation in smallholder farms.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used quantitative approaches to survey 378 smallholder farms in Uganda. Data were analysed using Structural Equation Modelling to establish the relationship between farm management skills, entrepreneurial bricolage and market orientation.

Findings

Farm management skills positively predict market orientation while entrepreneurial bricolage partially mediates the relationship between farm management skills and market orientation.

Research limitations/implications

The study utilized a survey design, which provides a cross-sectional view. Given that market orientation of smallholder farms can vary during the farm growth process, it becomes more informative to analyse how the independent and mediating variables cause a variation at different levels of market orientation.

Practical implications

Farm management training programmes that emphasize financial management skills and employ a household approach should be strengthened to enhance smallholder market orientation. Strategies for enhancing market orientation should also entail bricolage as a complementary behaviour to farm management.

Originality/value

We introduce entrepreneurial bricolage to the market orientation debate. The study brings alive the significance of entrepreneurial bricolage in smallholder farming. It also confirms the role of farm management skills in enhancing the market orientation of smallholder farms.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 July 2019

Małgorzata Wiśniewska, Eugenia Czernyszewicz and Anna Kałuża

The purpose of this paper is to measure and assess the level of food safety culture (FSC) in the restaurant operating in the SUBWAY franchise network.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to measure and assess the level of food safety culture (FSC) in the restaurant operating in the SUBWAY franchise network.

Design/methodology/approach

The case study accompanied by the questionnaire built of 38 items grouped into five areas/sections: management style/food safety (FS) policy, leadership, communication, commitment and work environment.

Findings

The level of FSC is 3.83 on a 1–5 scale. It requires further improvement and taking greater care of FS. The work environment and management style/FS policy were assessed the highest, while leadership and communication the lowest. There is a need to increase the frequency of meetings that address the issue of FS, ensure a better atmosphere of mutual trust and sharing knowledge about potential problems. It is also necessary to appreciate FS initiatives as well as review the number and suitability of existing procedures.

Research limitations/implications

In further studies, the case study accompanied by a questionnaire could be supported by additional qualitative methods, e.g. interviews with employees, observations or mystery shopping.

Practical implications

The results may help managers to verify and improve the overall FS policy in the restaurant and to encourage ongoing assessment of FSC in other franchise network entities that will take into account the critical aspects of FSC indicated in the case study.

Originality/value

In the literature, the issue of the role and meaning as well as the assessment of FSC has been undertaken for many years; however, there are no papers considering small restaurants from Central Europe. This is also the first paper in Poland that addresses the aspect of FSC and its assessment.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Nada Smigic, Ilija Djekic, Igor Tomasevic, Nikola Stanisic, Aleksandar Nedeljkovic, Verica Lukovic and Jelena Miocinovic

The purpose of this paper is to investigate if there is a difference in hygiene parameters of raw milk produced in organic and conventional farm of similar size. In…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate if there is a difference in hygiene parameters of raw milk produced in organic and conventional farm of similar size. In parallel, the aim was to determine if there are differences in pasteurized organic and conventional milk samples delivered on the market.

Design/methodology/approach

Raw milk samples were analyzed for aerobic colony count (ACC), somatic cell count (SCC), acidity, temperature, fat and protein content. On the other side, final products of organic and conventional pasteurized milk with 2.8 percent declared milk fat were analyzed for Raman spectroscopy, color change and sensorial difference.

Findings

Results of raw milk analysis showed statistically significant differences in fat content, SCC, acidity, temperature and ACC (p<0.05). It is of note that ACC for organic milk were lower for approx. 1 log CFU/ml compared to conventional milk samples. Pasteurized organic milk samples had a significantly higher L* value than those samples originating from conventional farms, indicating that organic is “more white” compared to conventional milk. According to the results of triangle test, with 95 percent confidence no more than 10 percent of the population is able to detect a difference.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of this research is the fact that good veterinary practices at farms, namely, animal health and adequate usage of medicine for treating the animals, animal welfare and animal feeding were not analyzed.

Originality/value

This study analyzed potential differences in organic and conventional milk at two important production stages of the milk chain – at receipt at dairy plant (raw milk) and perceived by consumers (final product).

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Nurul Aisyah Binti Mohd Suhaimi, Yann de Mey and Alfons Oude Lansink

The purpose of this paper is to measure the technical inefficiency of dairy farms and subsequently investigate the factors affecting technical inefficiency in the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to measure the technical inefficiency of dairy farms and subsequently investigate the factors affecting technical inefficiency in the Malaysian dairy industry.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses multi-directional efficiency analysis to measure the technical inefficiency scores on a sample of 200 farm observations and single-bootstrap truncated regression model to define factors affecting technical inefficiency.

Findings

Managerial and program inefficiency scores are presented for intensive and semi-intensive production systems. The results reveal marked differences in the inefficiency scores across inputs and between production systems.

Practical implications

Intensive systems generally have lowest managerial and program inefficiency scores in the Malaysian dairy farming sector. Policy makers could use this information to advise dairy farmers to convert their farming system to the intensive system.

Social implications

The results suggest that the Malaysian Government should redefine its policy for providing farm finance and should target young farmers when designing training and extension programs in order to improve the performance of the dairy sector.

Originality/value

The existing literature on Southeast Asian dairy farming has neither focused on investigating input-specific efficiency nor on comparing managerial and program efficiency. This paper aims to fill this gap.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2010

J.M. Bewley, Boehlje, A.W. Gray, H. Hogeveen, S.J. Kenyon, S.D. Eicher and M.M. Schutz

Automated body condition scoring (BCS) through extraction of information from digital images has been demonstrated to be feasible; and commercial technologies are being…

Abstract

Purpose

Automated body condition scoring (BCS) through extraction of information from digital images has been demonstrated to be feasible; and commercial technologies are being developed. The primary objective of this research was to identify the factors that influence the potential profitability of investing in an automated BCS system.

Design/methodology/approach

An expert opinion survey was conducted to provide estimates for potential improvements associated with technology adoption. A stochastic simulation model of a dairy system, designed to assist dairy producers with investment decisions for precision dairy farming technologies was utilized to perform a net present value (NPV) analysis. Benefits of technology adoption were estimated through assessment of the impact of BCS on the incidence of ketosis, milk fever, and metritis, conception rate at first service, and energy efficiency.

Findings

Improvements in reproductive performance had the largest influence on revenues followed by energy efficiency and then by disease reduction. The impact of disease reduction was less than anticipated because the ideal BCS indicated by experts resulted in a simulated increase in the proportion of cows with BCS at calving 3.50. The estimates for disease risks and conception rates, obtained from literature, however, suggested that this increase would result in increased disease incidence. Stochastic variables that had the most influence on NPV were: variable cost increases after technology adoption; the odds ratios for ketosis and milk fever incidence and conception rates at first service associated with varying BCS ranges; uncertainty of the impact of ketosis, milk fever, and metritis on days open, unrealized milk, veterinary costs, labor, and discarded milk; and the change in the percentage of cows with BCS at calving 3.25 before and after technology adoption. The deterministic inputs impacting NPV were herd size, management level, and level of milk production. Investment in this technology may be profitable but results were very herd‐specific. A simulation modeling a deterministic 25 percent decrease in the percentage of cows with BCS at calving ≤3.25 demonstrated a positive NPV in 86.6 percent of 1,000 iterations.

Originality/value

This investment decision can be analyzed with input of herd‐specific values using this model.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 70 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

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