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Article

K. Praveen Parboteeah, Helena M. Addae and John B. Cullen

Absenteeism is a costly behavior that occurs around the world. However, in spite of the growth in cross‐cultural research in organizational research and in global…

Abstract

Absenteeism is a costly behavior that occurs around the world. However, in spite of the growth in cross‐cultural research in organizational research and in global businesses, very few studies have examined absenteeism from a cross‐cultural perspective. This study examined the effect of national culture on absenteeism using a sample of 17,842 respondents from 24 countries. Based on Hofstede's cultural dimensions, we postulated that uncertainty avoidance, power distance, individualism, and masculinity will be negatively related to absenteeism. Similarly, based on the GLOBE cultural dimensions, we proposed that there will be positive relationships between societal collectivism and assertiveness, and absenteeism. However, we hypothesized that in‐group collectivism and gender egalitarianism will have negative relationships with absenteeism. To test our cross‐level hypotheses, we used Hierarchical Linear Modeling. Our results indicated that with the exception of uncertainty avoidance and assertiveness, all our hypothesized relationships were supported. Consistent findings were obtained for the common elements of both the Hofstede and GLOBE cultural dimensions, demonstrating convergence of our findings. We offer theoretical and practical implications of our study and suggest future research directions in the culture‐absenteeism link

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International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article

Steven X. Si and John B. Cullen

The present study investigated whether questionnaires using explicit midpoints produce different results for different cultural groups. We hypothesized that managers from…

Abstract

The present study investigated whether questionnaires using explicit midpoints produce different results for different cultural groups. We hypothesized that managers from China, Japan, and Hong Kong (CJH) respond differently to Western management scales than do managers from the US., Germany, and United Kingdom (UGU). We found differences in central tendency (the likelihood of choosing the midpoint in overall variance between these groups). Using scales with even numbered response categories (thus removing the explicit midpoint) decreases the central tendencies of the CJH group and increases the variance in the responses to Western management questionnaire. Results suggested that when survey questionnaires are used in CJH cultures, careful consideration should be given to the choice between scales with even‐numbered response categories and those with odd‐numbered response categories.

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The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

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Article

Craig Julian and Aron O’Cass

Examines the determinants of International Joint Venture marketing performance in Thailand. Uses the results from a survey of 1047 Thai‐foreign IJVs in Thailand from firms…

Abstract

Examines the determinants of International Joint Venture marketing performance in Thailand. Uses the results from a survey of 1047 Thai‐foreign IJVs in Thailand from firms that were mainly engaged in agriculture, metal working, electrical and chemical industries. Applies exploratory factor analysis and discriminant analysis to identify these critical determinants as market characteristics, conflict, commitment, marketing orientation and organisational control.

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Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Book part

Sahrok Kim, K. Praveen Parboteeah and John B. Cullen

Until recently, the business environment was characterized by a world in which nations were more connected than ever before. Unfortunately, the outbreak of coronavirus…

Abstract

Until recently, the business environment was characterized by a world in which nations were more connected than ever before. Unfortunately, the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has virtually ended the borderless and globalized world we were accustomed to. The World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared COVID-19 a pandemic at a news conference in Geneva on March 11, 2020. The multifaceted nature of this invisible virus is impacting the world at many levels, and this unprecedented pandemic may best be characterized as an economic and health war against humanity. More international cooperation is crucial for effectively dealing with the present pandemic (and future pandemics) because all nations are vulnerable, and it is highly unlikely that any pandemic would affect only one country. Therefore, this case study takes a sociological approach, examining various social institutions and cultural facets (i.e., government, press freedom, information technology [IT] infrastructure, healthcare systems, and institutional collectivism) to understand how South Korea is handling the crisis while drawing important implications for other countries. All aspects of how Korea is handling COVID-19 may not be applicable to other countries, such as those with fewer IT infrastructures and less institutional collectivism. However, its methods still offer profound insights into how countries espousing democratic values rooted in openness and transparency to both domestic and worldwide communities can help overcome the current challenge. As such, the authors believe that Korea's innovative approach and experience can inform other nations dealing with COVD-19, while also leading to greater international collaboration for better preparedness when such pandemics occur in the future. This case study also considers implications for both public policy and organization, and the authors pose critical questions and offer practical solutions for dealing with the current pandemic.

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Article

Diane M. Nelson, Stoney L. Brooks, Arrvvind Sahaym and John B. Cullen

An international archival data set resulting from a survey of workers in 27 countries is studied, examining certain individual factors affecting family-friendly work…

Abstract

Purpose

An international archival data set resulting from a survey of workers in 27 countries is studied, examining certain individual factors affecting family-friendly work perceptions (FFWP) beginning within the USA and, then, studying FFWP across a select group of six countries, specifically comparing the USA to Bulgaria, Denmark, Japan, Russia and South Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews studies on gender differences affecting FFWP, focusing on International Social Survey Programme Work Orientation III Survey 2005.

Findings

The six-country comparative analysis shows differences: in the demographic factors in the effects of gender, age and marital status, and the work context factors of number of work hours and type of employer on FFWP; FFWP for those who are self-employed (entrepreneurs), government workers, those working for public companies and those working for private companies and self-employed (entrepreneurial) workers show greater appreciation for family-friendly work practices than those who are government workers and those working for public and private companies.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of this research include the drawbacks of using secondary data such as the method of data collection, the quality of cross-national data and the fit between the manifest variable survey responses with the latent construct.

Practical implications

Managers need to be aware of the importance of family-friendly work practices to their employee base. Failure to match the desired level of FFWP could lead to a less productive and unhappy workforce.

Social implications

Cultural effects were found in the results, indicating that demographics have differing effects across cultures, but workplace factors are constant across cultures.

Originality/value

The paper provides valuable information on gender differences across cultures.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article

Chew Har Loke, Suhaiza Ismail and A.H. Fatima

The purpose of this paper is to empirically test Arnaud’s (2010) ethical climate index (ECI) of measuring ethical work climate (EWC) in the context of Malaysian public…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically test Arnaud’s (2010) ethical climate index (ECI) of measuring ethical work climate (EWC) in the context of Malaysian public sector auditors (PSAs).

Design/methodology/approach

EWC is conceptualized as four main components with two sub-components. Questionnaires were distributed to the population of PSAs in the Malaysian National Audit Department (NAD). Factor analysis (principal component analysis [PCA]) was used to verify the components of EWC.

Findings

Results from PCA revealed that EWC, indeed, has four main components. Therefore, the findings of this study provide empirical evidence that validates Arnaud’s (2010) EWC model, although tested on PSAs in Malaysia.

Research limitations/implications

This paper has a limited purpose, which is to test whether the ECI could be applied to PSAs in Malaysia to derive the original four main components of Arnaud’s EWC. Thus, this study does not evaluate the EWC of PSAs or determine causal relationships between EWC and other variables; these are left to future studies.

Practical implications

The findings of this study confirm that Arnaud’s (2010) ECI is sufficiently resilient to be applied to the context of PSAs in Malaysia. Hence, future studies could use this index to measure EWC not only in the public sector but also in the private sector. Future research could also further test this index in different contexts.

Originality/value

Arnaud’s (2010) ECI was originally applied in the context of the private sector in a developed country. Hence, this study adds value by extending the ECI to the public sector in a developing country, Malaysia.

Details

International Journal of Ethics and Systems, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9369

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Article

Kevin E. Voss, Jean L. Johnson, John B. Cullen, Tomoaki Sakano and Hideyuki Takenouchi

To develop and test a new model of relational exchange in marketing‐oriented non‐equity international strategic alliances.

Abstract

Purpose

To develop and test a new model of relational exchange in marketing‐oriented non‐equity international strategic alliances.

Design/methodology/approach

The model is tested using a sample of 97 matched dyads of US and Japanese firms in the electronics industry. The model was tested using three stage least squares.

Findings

The data generally support the proposed model for both nations/cultures. The results suggest that the benevolence dimension of trust is a more important determinant of managerially assessed alliance marketing performance for the Japanese firms relative to their US partners.

Research limitations/implications

While strong inferences are inhibited by the nature of our data set, our research implies that cultural sensitivity is an important determinant of the credibility and benevolence dimensions of trust and quality information exchange. Also, exchanging quality information is a strong mediator of the trust‐performance relationship.

Practical implications

International marketing managers should be focused on the process of developing high levels of alliance marketing performance. Our results suggest that this performance can be linked, at least in part, to the exchange of relevant, timely, important information. Information exchange in turn depends on the development of trust and cultural sensitivity in the relationship.

Originality/value

This paper integrates the cultural sensitivity construct into a relational exchange model of international alliances, demonstrating the importance of being open to, and understanding of, culturally driven operational differences. The important behavioral construct we call quality information exchange is a mediator in the relational exchange model, an improvement over models that include only relational constructs such as trust and commitment.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 23 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article

Manjula S. Salimath and John B. Cullen

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview and synthesis of the extant literature in entrepreneurship by utilizing an uncommon and unique lens. The lens focuses…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview and synthesis of the extant literature in entrepreneurship by utilizing an uncommon and unique lens. The lens focuses on studies that explore the effects of formal (social institutions) and informal (national culture) institutional factors on entrepreneurship at the national level.

Design/methodology/approach

The design is a narrative literature overview of research published in peer reviewed journals in business and related fields from 1980 to 2009. North's classification of formal and informal institutions provides the structural framework. The overview includes salient published articles that empirically assessed the effect of at least one variable of the institutional context on entrepreneurship. The paper is organized as follows. After setting the context, legitimacy, and validity of contextual research in the entrepreneurship field in general, it reviews relevant research, focusing on the formal and informal institutional factors that affect entrepreneurship.

Findings

The review highlights the complex nature of entrepreneurship. Both formal and informal institutional factors affect entrepreneurship at multiple levels.

Research limitations/implications

The review is important as it synthesizes the results of published research and offers a starting point to understand the effect of macro contextual factors on entrepreneurship. It is also timely, as entrepreneurship plays a significant role in the economic well being of a nation, and many governments are actively seeking to increase entrepreneurial activity.

Practical implications

Policy makers can further entrepreneurship by understanding the role played by the institutional context. Applying appropriate institutional incentives is instrumental in enabling entrepreneurs in a more direct and effective manner.

Originality/value

The paper provides a new synthesis of formal and informal institutional effects on entrepreneurship at the nation‐level. As such, it goes beyond prior culture based reviews, and add to the understanding of macro nation effects of institutions on entrepreneurship.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Abstract

Details

Corporate Fraud Exposed
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-418-8

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Article

Yan He and Fu Long

Attempts to establish a decision‐making model by which multinational enterprises (MNEs) front‐end financial target can be evaluated and determined. Explains and defines…

Abstract

Attempts to establish a decision‐making model by which multinational enterprises (MNEs) front‐end financial target can be evaluated and determined. Explains and defines the financial range. Identifies their strategic concerns in order to do this. Continues by exploring the pattern of front‐end financial target variation and the process of its determination, constructing an international joint venture investment supply‐demand model. Elaborates upon how contingency factors in international operations exert direct impact on this matter and gives some considerations for future research.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 24 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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