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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2019

Johan Bruwer, Justin Cohen and Kathleen Kelley

The importance of the wine involvement construct in explaining consumers’ wine consumption behaviour is widely acknowledged in the literature, as is the social nature of…

Abstract

Purpose

The importance of the wine involvement construct in explaining consumers’ wine consumption behaviour is widely acknowledged in the literature, as is the social nature of dining out with others. Yet, there is a paucity of research examining the relationships between how this construct interacts with dining group dynamics and wine consumption behavioural aspects in the restaurant environment. This study aims to investigate these aspects in US restaurants.

Design/methodology/approach

Utilising an online survey that yielded a sample of 513 respondents from across the USA who frequented all the recognised restaurant categories, respondents are segmented into low and high wine involvement categories using a reliable wine involvement scale. The authors examine differences between various dining group dynamics, dining group composition, main choice factors when ordering wine and method of ordering wine in US restaurants.

Findings

The authors find that diners’ level of involvement with wine provides sharp insights into several significant differences between involvement and dining group dynamics, group composition, choice factors when ordering wine and method of ordering wine in restaurants. High involvement diners dine out in larger groups, order more wine, spend more money on wine, are more often the main decision-maker ordering wine for the dining group and use wine menus and wall board displays more often when ordering than low involvement diners. They are also more discerning about the taste of wine, grape variety and wine style in terms of choice factors when ordering.

Practical implications

The nature and dynamics of dining groups are aspects that have profound implications, in various ways, for the restaurant industry. The level of involvement diners have with wine is a strong predictor of various outcomes in terms of dining group behavioural aspects regarding wine. Wine-related restaurant category-specific profile descriptions, such as those developed in this study, can be helpful for restaurants when creating business strategies.

Originality/value

The authors make a substantive contribution by being the first study to examine the relationships between dining group dynamics, dining group composition and behavioural aspects concerning wine consumption and involvement in the restaurant environment. The authors then map this information to derive wine-related profile descriptions for all US restaurant categories.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Johan Bruwer, Brigitte Roediger and Frikkie Herbst

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of a domain-specific research instrument (the wine-related lifestyle (WRL)) to determine the different lifestyle-related…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of a domain-specific research instrument (the wine-related lifestyle (WRL)) to determine the different lifestyle-related wine market segments in a country and compare the findings cross-culturally.

Design/methodology/approach

The research instrument included 48 psychographic activities, interests and opinions (AIO) statements, plus socio-demographic, product consumption and purchasing questions. A final sample of 376 South African wine consumers was utilised, whereon exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, combined with Hough’s Euclidean test, were applied to determine the existence of clusters (segments), assign descriptions to them, and link these to product consumption data.

Findings

Five wine segments recurred when comparing wine market segmentation studies cross-culturally. This means that cross-culturally, similar types of people drink wine with similar AIOs towards wine. In the South African market, four of these segments were identified.

Research limitations/implications

This study achieved a robust lifestyle-based market segmentation algorithm which can be used by researchers in different country environments for wine as a domain-specific product.

Originality/value

The contribution of this research is threefold in that it tested the WRL instrument in a cross-cultural context which is the first time this has been done; in the process it interpreted the wine consumer segments in South Africa for the first time; using a WRL-based (AIO) approach. The study demonstrated that market segmentation based on psychographic (lifestyle) behaviour is strengthened when supported by two additional segmentation methods, namely, socio-demographics and product involvement (purchasing and consumption).

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

David Roe and Johan Bruwer

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which consumer self-concept (self-esteem) and product involvement influences the wine purchase decision at the retail…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which consumer self-concept (self-esteem) and product involvement influences the wine purchase decision at the retail level given the anticipated consumption occasion. The predictive effects of self-concept on this interaction were also explored.

Design/methodology/approach

Data collection was in the independent specialist fine wine store environment in Sydney, Australia. Central to the study was the development of a 33-item multi-dimensional fine wine involvement scale (Cronbach’s α =0.846 for 26 final items) for measuring consumers’ involvement.

Findings

Wine product involvement deepens with age but low involvement consumers perceiving risk in making the wrong product choice may well purchase fine wines for situations where self-concept is a moderating factor. In the case of low involvement wine consumers a positive association exists between situational wine choice and self-concept but no significant differences exist for self-concept across any of the consumption occasions. Age and self-concept were both confirmed as linked to levels of consumption. The findings support the notion that wine consumers aged 45 years and older are significantly more disposed to purchase fine wine products.

Practical implications

For self-concept to be relevant to purchase it follows that the wine consumption occasion must be conspicuous.

Originality/value

This study is the first to examine the extent to which consumer self-concept and product involvement influences the wine purchase decision at the retail level given the anticipated consumption occasion.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2017

Johan Bruwer and Elton Li

Since the publication of Van Raaij and Verhallen’s seminal work in European Journal of Marketing in 1994, identifying the domain-specific market segmentation approach as…

Abstract

Purpose

Since the publication of Van Raaij and Verhallen’s seminal work in European Journal of Marketing in 1994, identifying the domain-specific market segmentation approach as one of the most feasible for segmenting markets, there has been surprisingly limited development in this field, with the food domain as the only exception. This study aims to develop a methodological approach using latent class mixture modelling as contribution in the domain-specific market segmentation field.

Design/methodology/approach

This study captures the AIO lifestyle perspective using a domain-specific 80-item algorithm which has the wine (product) domain as its focus. A sample size of 811 consumers is used from data collected by means of the CATI approach.

Findings

The authors use four criteria for model selection: comparison of the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) statistic, comparison of classification error, verification of the interpretation of the derived segments and, finally, use of the conditional bootstrap procedure to test whether the selected model provides a significant improvement over the previous model. The five-segment model option yields a minimum BIC, the classification error measure is minimal and is easier to interpret than the other models. Segment descriptions for the five identified lifestyle-based segments are developed.

Research limitations/implications

Segmentation by traditional k-means clustering has proven to be less useful than the more innovative alternative of mixture regression modelling; therefore, the authors identify segments in the market on the basis of individuals’ domain-specific lifestyle characteristics using a latent class mixture modelling approach.

Practical implications

Following the attainment of a clear and robust market segmentation structure, the simultaneous analysis of the lifestyles, demographics and behaviours of consumers as nexus of the domain-specific segmentation approach, provides rich and valid information accurately informing the market segment descriptions.

Originality/value

The authors make a substantive contribution by developing a methodological approach using latent class mixture modelling; the first of its kind in the area of domain-specific segmentation. Next, they use the discriminant and/or predictive validity of the 80-scale items to predict cluster membership using the WRL algorithm. Finally, the authors describe the identified market segments in detail and outline the practical implications.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 51 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Johan Bruwer, Polymeros Chrysochou and Isabelle Lesschaeve

The purpose of this paper is to examine the utilisation of product choice cues in a retail environment and the impact of consumer involvement on this utilisation. It…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the utilisation of product choice cues in a retail environment and the impact of consumer involvement on this utilisation. It further investigates the impact of product knowledge on product choice cue utilisation and its moderating role on the impact of consumer involvement.

Design/methodology/approach

The case of wine as an exemplary product category is considered, given the importance and variability of choice cues that have been found to affect product choice. Analysis is conducted on survey data from a sample of wine consumers in Ontario, Canada. Product choice cues are grouped into extrinsic, intrinsic and marketing mix. The importance of how these cues are influenced from different dimensions of consumer involvement is illustrated.

Findings

The results show that product knowledge has a positive impact on intrinsic product cue utilisation and further moderates this relationship improving the predictability of the hypothesised model. Implications for theory and practice are also discussed.

Practical implications

From an industry viewpoint, the focus in the past has mostly been on using packaging to attract attention/create awareness, create an image of desirability, etc., but not nearly as much on the functionality aspects thereof; for example alternative smaller packaging sizes to the standard 750 ml wine bottle.

Originality/value

The study uses a multi-dimensional approach to measure the impact of enduring involvement on utilisation of product choice cues.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2019

Kathleen Kelley, Johan Bruwer, Jennifer Zelinskie, Denise Gardner, Ramu Govindasamy, Jeffrey Hyde and Bradley Rickard

The purpose of this paper is to investigate consumers’ wine preferences, recycling attitudes and behaviors and socio-demographic data in an effort to build market segment…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate consumers’ wine preferences, recycling attitudes and behaviors and socio-demographic data in an effort to build market segment profiles of those willing to transport wine bottles back to winery tasting rooms to be recycled, interest in standard-weight glass-alternative packaging and, various cork-alternative bottle closures.

Design/methodology/approach

A two-stage online survey was administered to 714 wine consumers residing in the Mid-Atlantic region of the USA during two periods in March 2016. Exhaustive chi-square automatic interaction detector (ECHAID) decision tree predictive analysis was used to identify the market segments.

Findings

A majority of survey participants were willing to bring empty wine bottles to a winery for recycling (85 percent). Collectively, 77 percent of participants were members of just three of the eight segments developed using a decision tree predictive algorithm, with 90 percent of participants in these segments willing to bring empty wine bottles to a winery tasting room to be recycled. Two segments were comprised of Millennials and Generation X, and the third of Baby Boomers, two having a moderate to extreme interest in natural cork used to seal wine bottles, and similar.

Originality/value

An ECHAID classification tree method was used to develop eight consumer segments. Identifying characteristics that describe consumers likely to return empty wine bottles to a winery benefits recycling efforts and could possibly encourage additional sales.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Johan Bruwer and Emily McCutcheon

The purpose of this paper is to facilitate a better understanding of the insights provided by adopting a behaviourism perspective of the socio-demographics, consumption…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to facilitate a better understanding of the insights provided by adopting a behaviourism perspective of the socio-demographics, consumption dynamics and retail channel patronage of wine consumers and the potential marketing implications these have.

Design/methodology/approach

Systematic random sampling yielded 811 surveys of wine consumers collected at households across Australia’s three main consumption metropoles. A hierarchical multiple regression model is used to test the predictive ability of the socio-demographical variables, gender and age, on personal wine consumption.

Findings

Specific differences exist in the consumption behaviour and wine type preferences of males and females, and between generational cohorts, specifically Millennial and older consumers. There are gender significant differences in wine type consumption, which in turn is moderated by not only the “classical” socio-demographic variables, but also the retail outlet types preferred for product purchase. Younger Millennial females place more importance on external choice cues in making their buying decision than males. The gender and age generation socio-demographic variables are not strong predictors of personal wine consumption.

Practical implications

Opportunities exist for niche-marketed brands targeted at specific segments such as young females and this study highlighted their specific needs and consumer behaviour dynamics.

Originality/value

This study illustrates through carefully executed wine consumer behaviour research, directed by questioning from the extant literature, how information derived from a behaviourism perspective can intelligently inform marketing strategies. In the process, it also provides “baselines” for future research.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2018

Poppy Arsil, Elton Li, Johan Bruwer and Graham Lyons

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate the motives of urban consumers when purchasing local food products using means-end chain (MEC) analysis and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate the motives of urban consumers when purchasing local food products using means-end chain (MEC) analysis and second, to introduce an alternative approach to segment the market based on consumers’ motivation using decision segmentation analysis (DSA).

Design/methodology/approach

DSA was used as advanced segmentation procedure of hierarchy value maps (HVMs) produced by MEC analysis.

Findings

The findings suggest that there are two main segments of local food consumers in urban Indonesia: value-for-money and health benefits. The value-for-money segment is dominant when making local food purchasing.

Research limitations/implications

This study sample is not representative of local food consumers in urban Indonesia as only three urban cities were interviewed.

Practical implications

An understanding of the motivation-based segmentation of local food in urban cities is a useful tool in order to reinforce and attract local food consumers to consume more locally grown food.

Originality/value

This study reveals the motivation-based segmentation of local food in urban cities in Indonesia.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 20 August 2018

Johan Bruwer

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2014

Josias A. Engelbrecht, Frikkie Herbst and Johan Bruwer

This purpose of the study was to examine the relevance of the presence of geographical information, specifically the certification of region of origin (ROO) on the wine…

Abstract

Purpose

This purpose of the study was to examine the relevance of the presence of geographical information, specifically the certification of region of origin (ROO) on the wine label, in the consumer’s wine purchase decision. In addition, the research investigated how the relevance of ROO varies across demographic and behavioural market segments.

Design/methodology/approach

The data gathered via an online questionnaire from 434 South African wine consumers were analysed by employing both descriptive and inferential statistical methods.

Findings

The ROO of wine plays a secondary role in influencing consumers when faced with a purchasing decision on its own. However, as part of the composite regional variable, namely, grape variety, region and wine style, it plays a major role in influencing consumers. The specific wine grape variety emerged as the most important factor influencing consumers. It was also found that consumers with a high involvement and interest in wine assign a higher degree of relevance to certification of origin of wine than consumers with a low involvement.

Practical implications

Wine producers should strive to create a “lighthouse” identity in the minds of consumers. This can only be achieved if most, if not all, the wine producers in a specific geographical area consistently and authentically communicate the same message and offer products with a lighthouse identity to wine consumers.

Originality/value

This is the first study that examines the impact of ROO as an information cue on consumers’ wine purchase decision-making in South Africa. It is of value to academic researchers, wine marketing professionals and generic marketing organisations such as wine route organisations.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

Keywords

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