One of the key elements contributing to successful post-disaster project teams is individual competence. Each project participant brings his or her own knowledge…
One of the key elements contributing to successful post-disaster project teams is individual competence. Each project participant brings his or her own knowledge, experience and ideas to the collective. The kind of chaotic and fragmented environment that is common in post-disaster scenarios presents specific barriers to the success of projects, which can be mitigated by ensuring that staff members possess competencies appropriate for their deployment to particular contexts. The paper aims to discuss these issues.
The study utilizes a mixed-methods approach, incorporating unstructured interviews to extract key factors of competence, project barriers and strategy, and a subsequent questionnaire survey, designed to quantify the various elements. Interviews were undertaken and analysed using a cognitive mapping procedure, while survey data were processed using SPSS. The data were then utilized in the development of a software prototype using Design Science Research methodology, capable of modelling the deployment of staff under various disaster scenarios.
Analysis of the survey and cognitive mapping data, in conjunction with relevant established frameworks, has allowed the classification of relevant competency elements. These elements have subsequently been measured and modelled into the competency-based tool and developed into a working prototype.
The developed system offers novel disaster competency assessment criteria. The system contains a variety of real-life scenarios derived from extensive data collection. These multi-hazard scenarios are embedded with knowledge and competency valuation criteria that can facilitate actors to assess their team’s knowledge based on selective scenarios. In disaster response, time is a critical element, and this tool assists decision makers. It can enable disaster response actors to evaluate and assemble the appropriate personnel to deploy into disaster areas and into specific types of disaster environment.
The transfer of technology from the foreign partner to the domestic partner has been a problem for international joint ventures throughout the world, but particularly in…
The transfer of technology from the foreign partner to the domestic partner has been a problem for international joint ventures throughout the world, but particularly in China. Because of the nature of organisational learning, especially in its tacit forms, such transfers can occur quite subtly without the foreign partner realising what has transpired until it is too late. The problem is complicated by the fact that technology is short‐lived and must be exploited within narrow time frames, the fact that the Chinese partner’s primary interest is in acquiring the foreign partner’s technology, and the fact that the foreign partner typically shows little interest in obtaining the Chinese partner’s unique non‐technical knowledge as an offset. This article attempts to show how technology transfers can be controlled in the first place and how the foreign partner’s competitive advantage can be preserved by acquiring the domestic partner’s unique knowledge of host country circumstances.
Uses the research of Dorfman and Howell’s work‐related cultural value scale to measure masculinity versus femininity across the USA, Japan and China. Attempts to contrast gender role typing attitudes. Describes how men in each country had significantly differing attitudes to the role of women in the workforce whilst women were found to be less willing to accept roles based on gender. Highlights clear differences between each country.
Considers the nature of beliefs and differentiates between three different kinds of beliefs as defined by Rokeach. Outlines the findings of a survey of business and economic students from a variety of countries in order to establish if work beliefs vary across nations. Suggests that there are significant differences and that future research should focus on what will motivate Western managers in the now developing information age.
Explores Chinese culture and the problems foreign firms and governments encounter when dealing with China. Emphasizes Confucianism’s dominant cultural tradition in China…
Explores Chinese culture and the problems foreign firms and governments encounter when dealing with China. Emphasizes Confucianism’s dominant cultural tradition in China and attempts to explain it to improve foreign firms’ chances of success. Describes Confucianism as a way of living, incorporating the principles of humanism and the notion of filial piety. Mentions the five cardinal relations, harmony and Neo‐Confucianism’s “Principle of universal truth, order, law, production and reproduction”. Assesses the implications of social inequality, social ritual, familism, guan xi (connections), face, and sun yung (mutual trust) for foreign firms. Concludes that foreign firms wishing to do business with China need to understand the labyrinth of Confucianism.
Assesses the effects of the Asian economic crisis on Taiwan and identifies some reasons why it has been less dramatically affected than other Asian countries. Discusses…
Assesses the effects of the Asian economic crisis on Taiwan and identifies some reasons why it has been less dramatically affected than other Asian countries. Discusses its actual and planned policies aimed at strengthening the economy further by maintaining currency stability, improving competitive strengths in both hi‐tech industries and manufacturing, entering new export markets, stimulating domestic demand and reforming financial institutions and regulations. Recognizes the political threats it faces but believes that increasing trade with and investment in China has reduced them.
The purpose of this paper is to review the literature and discuss the relations between national culture, national subcultures and innovation based on three perspectives…
The purpose of this paper is to review the literature and discuss the relations between national culture, national subcultures and innovation based on three perspectives: divergence, convergence and crossvergence.
Based principally on previous studies in the “culture” and “culture and innovation” literature, this paper reviews two key sets of literature: first, the three perspectives of macro‐level cultural interaction are reviewed; second, the relationship between culture and innovation is reviewed. Hofstede's five dimensions of culture in the workplace are employed when discussing the impact of culture and innovation.
The outcome of the review suggests that the product of crossvergence (Chinese‐American culture in this case) has a high potential to be more innovative than one of the two interacting cultures (Chinese), but does not draw a conclusion regarding relative innovativeness between Chinese‐American and US culture. It is generally found that Western cultures tend to be more innovative than Eastern cultures.
This conceptual paper has implications for business strategy but does not present fresh empirical data to support its propositions.
In today's highly competitive and highly complex global environment, innovation is a key success factor in organizations worldwide. The search for talented and innovative employees should not be limited to domestic sources alone. The talent pool of Chinese‐Americans and others from multicultural backgrounds should be tapped. Ethnocentric viewpoints are outdated.
The value of this paper is its exploration of the impacts of the crossvergence of cultures on innovation.
Looks at the problems of logistics in military operations and today’s commercial businesses. Traces the development of logistics management from a subordinate activity…
Looks at the problems of logistics in military operations and today’s commercial businesses. Traces the development of logistics management from a subordinate activity within a product producing entity to its performance by a separate entity which specializes in this area and requires a strategic alliance. Looks at this issue from the perspective of the outsourcing company and the logistical company. Considers what happens when this process is reversed and provides implications for the future.
Occupational stress occurs in a variety of forms, types, and situations. Arguably, a certain level of stress can encourage productivity, ingenuity, and satisfaction. As…
Occupational stress occurs in a variety of forms, types, and situations. Arguably, a certain level of stress can encourage productivity, ingenuity, and satisfaction. As occupational stress escalates, however, people’s capacity to deal with it diminishes, eventually compromising work performance and provoking people to express negative emotions. These negative aspects of stress are buffered to a certain extent by individual differences such as personality as well as external contextual factors such as the working environment. This chapter reports a study applying an affective events theory (AET) as a framework to investigate perceived stress in response to negative events in emergency services’ workplaces and the potential buffering effects of servant leadership, affective team climate, and psychological capital. An experience sampling methodology (ESM) was used to record daily cases of self-reported negative events experienced by participants over the three week data-collection period. A structured survey questionnaire independent of the ESM was also used to collect data from 44 emergency service operation members. The findings indicate that servant leadership behavior, affective team climate, and individual psychological capital all are significantly related to reduced perceived occupational stress in emergency service team members.