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Book part
Publication date: 29 January 2018

Huat Bin (Andy) Ang and Arch G. Woodside

This study applies asymmetric rather than conventional symmetric analysis to advance theory in occupational psychology. The study applies systematic case-based analyses to…

Abstract

This study applies asymmetric rather than conventional symmetric analysis to advance theory in occupational psychology. The study applies systematic case-based analyses to model complex relations among conditions (i.e., configurations of high and low scores for variables) in terms of set memberships of managers. The study uses Boolean algebra to identify configurations (i.e., recipes) reflecting complex conditions sufficient for the occurrence of outcomes of interest (e.g., high versus low financial job stress, job strain, and job satisfaction). The study applies complexity theory tenets to offer a nuanced perspective concerning the occurrence of contrarian cases – for example, in identifying different cases (e.g., managers) with high membership scores in a variable (e.g., core self-evaluation) who have low job satisfaction scores and when different cases with low membership scores in the same variable have high job satisfaction. In a large-scale empirical study of managers (n = 928) in four (contextual) segments of the farm industry in New Zealand, this study tests the fit and predictive validities of set membership configurations for simple and complex antecedent conditions that indicate high/low core self-evaluations, job stress, and high/low job satisfaction. The findings support the conclusion that complexity theory in combination with configural analysis offers useful insights for explaining nuances in the causes and outcomes to high stress as well as low stress among farm managers. Some findings support and some are contrary to symmetric relationship findings (i.e., highly significant correlations that support main effect hypotheses).

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Improving the Marriage of Modeling and Theory for Accurate Forecasts of Outcomes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-122-7

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Article
Publication date: 9 June 2020

Inga Jona Jonsdottir, Gudbjorg Linda Rafnsdottir and Thorhildur Ólafsdóttir

The purpose of this paper is to further the understanding of public sector line managers' work-related well-being and health in relation to job strain, gender and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to further the understanding of public sector line managers' work-related well-being and health in relation to job strain, gender and workplace social support.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was sent to all senior and middle line managers (N = 357) in three administrative departments of Iceland's largest municipality. The response rate was 64.7%. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse the data.

Findings

A minority of respondents experience high job strain. However, for these managers, the risk of experiencing emotional exhaustion is about fivefold, compared to those not experiencing high job strain. Social support is an important buffering against job strain and enhances well-being. Female managers are more likely than their male counterparts to report myositis, back or shoulder pain and sleeping difficulty.

Practical implications

The study emphasises that workplace social support attenuates the negative impact of job strain on line managers' work-related well-being. Furthermore, it demonstrates that in a society at the forefront in gender equality, gender differences in health symptoms exist among line managers in the public sector – a finding that highlights the importance of studying all aspects of workplace well-being by gender. This calls for future research using a more comprehensive survey data and interviews to shed light on the pathways through which female line managers' health is negatively affected.

Originality/value

Knowledge relating to well-being and health of line managers in the public sector is scarce. This study contributes to filling that gap. As work-related well-being is often gender-blind, the value of the study is also the investigation of the gender patterns in the authors’ data.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2011

Chu-Hsiang (Daisy) Chang and Samantha K. Baard

Given the increasing global focus of many aspects of our society, researchers have taken significant steps in understanding the impact of culture on various psychological…

Abstract

Given the increasing global focus of many aspects of our society, researchers have taken significant steps in understanding the impact of culture on various psychological states. This review focuses on the stressor–strain relationships within the context of cross-cultural and cross-national studies. Using research findings from the United States as a baseline, we identify common and unique themes concerning the stressor–strain relationships between different countries, and clarify the differences between cross-national and cross-cultural studies. Furthermore, we consider cross-cultural and cross-national occupational stress research from an individual differences perspective. We encourage future studies to adopt this perspective and carefully consider the implications of cultural values on occupational stress research at the individual, group, and country levels.

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The Role of Individual Differences in Occupational Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-711-7

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Cristina Rubino, Christa L. Wilkin and Ari Malka

Recent years have seen an explosion in the study of emotions in organizations, and although emotions play a central role in the job stress process, their role is largely…

Abstract

Recent years have seen an explosion in the study of emotions in organizations, and although emotions play a central role in the job stress process, their role is largely neglected in empirical stressor–strain studies. Our chapter aims to build consensus in the literature by showing that discrete emotions provide a mechanism through which stressors exert their impact on well-being. By examining a larger domain of stressors, emotions, and well-being, we begin to develop and expand upon the nomological network of emotions. In an effort to build on the job demands–resources (JD-R) model, which includes both job demands (i.e., negative stimuli such as time pressure) and resources (i.e., positive stimuli such as autonomy), we include both negative and positive discrete emotions with the expectation that negative emotions will generally be linked to demands and positive emotions will be linked to resources. We also propose that there may be circumstances where demands trigger negative discrete emotions and lead to greater experienced strain, and conversely, where resources arouse positive discrete emotions, which would positively affect well-being. The model in our chapter sheds light on how discrete emotions have different antecedents (i.e., job demands and resources) and outcomes (e.g., satisfaction, burnout, performance), and as such, respond to calls for research on this topic. Our findings will be of particular interest to organizations where employees can be trained to manage their emotions to reduce the strain associated with job stressors.

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The Role of Emotion and Emotion Regulation in Job Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-586-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1980

Ben (C.) Fletcher and Roy L. Payne

There is a large literature devoted to the stresses and strains of work and work‐related activities. This research effort shows no sign of abating. The aim of this paper…

Abstract

There is a large literature devoted to the stresses and strains of work and work‐related activities. This research effort shows no sign of abating. The aim of this paper is to highlight and discuss several centrally important questions and assumptions in the nature of this research which, in our view, require more careful consideration in future work.

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Personnel Review, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2007

Jack K. Ito and Céleste M. Brotheridge

This exploratory study aims to examine the usefulness of distinguishing between the cognitive and emotional components of job insecurity.

Abstract

Purpose

This exploratory study aims to examine the usefulness of distinguishing between the cognitive and emotional components of job insecurity.

Design/methodology/approach

This cross‐sectional survey study was undertaken in a sample of 600 civil servants. A series of regressions are employed to test proposed hypotheses.

Findings

Results support the treatment of the components of job insecurity as separate variables. The cognitive and emotional components differed in their associations with predictors and consequences. Locus of control and employment dependence moderated several relationships. For example, employment dependence moderated the relationship between job insecurity and job loss strain.

Research limitations/implications

The study design was cross‐sectional and, thus, cause‐effect relationships cannot be discerned. Also, since it was undertaken in the public sector, it needs to be cross‐validated in the private sector so that the generalizability of its results can be established. The study points to the utility of separately measuring the components of job insecurity in future research. Also, the role of employment dependence deserves further study given its role as a predictor of job loss strain and as a significant moderator variable.

Practical implications

In supporting the treatment of job security and job loss strain as separate variables, this study suggests that one should consider how to reduce the negative effects of a lack of job security on job loss strain. This is especially important since job loss strain is associated with negative psychological and physiological symptoms. In today's rapidly changing environment, people who feel they have limited extra‐organizational opportunities appear to be particularly vulnerable. Human resource management practices that enhance employee mobility may help to manage their sense of dependence.

Originality/value

This paper addresses two major gaps in the job security literature: it develops a comprehensive model using a two‐component approach to job insecurity; and investigates the potential role of employment dependence as both a cause of insecurity's components and a moderator in the causes → insecurity → consequences model.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Robert L. Dipboye

Abstract

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The Emerald Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-786-9

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Book part
Publication date: 17 March 2010

Jason Kain and Steve Jex

Karasek's (1979) job demands-control model is one of the most widely studied models of occupational stress (de Lange, Taris, Kompier, Houtman, & Bongers, 2003). The key…

Abstract

Karasek's (1979) job demands-control model is one of the most widely studied models of occupational stress (de Lange, Taris, Kompier, Houtman, & Bongers, 2003). The key idea behind the job demands-control model is that control buffers the impact of job demands on strain and can help enhance employees’ job satisfaction with the opportunity to engage in challenging tasks and learn new skills (Karasek, 1979). Most research on the job demands-control has been inconsistent (de Lange et al., 2003; Van Der Deof & Maes, 1999), and the main reasons cited for this inconsistency are that different variables have been used to measure demands, control, and strain, not enough longitudinal research has been done, and the model does not take workers’ individual characteristics into account (Van Der Deof & Maes, 1999). To address these concerns, expansions have been made on the model such as integrating resources, self-efficacy, active coping, and social support into the model (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001b; Johnson & Hall, 1988; Demerouti, Bakker, de Jonge, Janssen, & Schaufeli, 2001a; Landsbergis, Schnall, Deitz, Friedman, & Pickering, 1992). However, researchers have only been partially successful, and therefore, to continue reducing inconstencies, we recommend using longitudinal designs, both objective and subjective measures, a higher sample size, and a careful consideration of the types of demands and control that best match each other theoretically.

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New Developments in Theoretical and Conceptual Approaches to Job Stress
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-713-4

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2012

Helen Lingard, Valerie Francis and Michelle Turner

This research aims to explore the relationship between work time demands, work time control and supervisor support in the Australian construction industry.

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to explore the relationship between work time demands, work time control and supervisor support in the Australian construction industry.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was undertaken with waged and salaried construction workers in two construction organizations (n=261).

Findings

Work time demands were positively correlated with time‐ and strain‐based work interference with family life (WIF) but inversely correlated with time‐ and strain‐based family interference with work (FIW). Work‐family enrichment was inversely correlated with work time demands and positively correlated with both work time control and social support from one's supervisor. Respondents with high work time demands and low work time control (or low supervisor support) reported the highest levels of time‐ and strain‐based WIF. The lowest levels of WIF were reported by respondents in low work time demands and high work time control (or high supervisor support) jobs classifications. However, jobs high in both work time demands and work time control reported the highest levels of work‐to‐family enrichment.

Research limitations/implications

The results suggest that work‐family conflict and work‐family enrichment should be treated as two distinct concepts in work‐family research and that the job demands‐control theory is helpful in explaining work‐family conflict but that alternative theories are needed to explain positive work‐family interactions.

Practical implications

The practical implication of the research is that reducing work time demands may be helpful in reducing work‐family conflict but that the provision of work domain resources is probably required to enable positive work‐family interactions.

Originality/value

Previous work‐family research has focused on job demands and resources separately, while the job strain literature has focused on the impact of job demands and the key resources of social support. The originality of this research is that it examines the extent to which different configurations of job demand and resource can explain experiences at the work‐family interface.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 19 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2012

Jack K. Ito and Céleste M. Brotheridge

This article seeks to apply the challenge–hindrance conceptualization of demands to a model that relates stressors to emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction…

Abstract

Purpose

This article seeks to apply the challenge–hindrance conceptualization of demands to a model that relates stressors to emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction. Supervisory support, a resource, is posited as a precursor to demands, and work–family conflict (WFC) and interpersonal conflict (IPC) at work are expected to mediate the demand–strain and job satisfaction relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

This cross‐sectional self‐report survey included a sample of 600 government employees in Canada.

Findings

In addition to directly influencing job satisfaction, supervisory support reduces strain and increases motivation by decreasing hindrances and interpersonal conflict. Also, although, challenge and hindrance demands are both positively associated with strain, task complexity is positively associated with job satisfaction, whereas role ambiguity and interpersonal conflict are negatively associated with job satisfaction. Furthermore, work–family conflict and interpersonal conflict fully mediate the effects of supervisory support, role conflict, and task complexity on strain, and they reduce the effects of ambiguity on strain. Thus, these factors have limited effects on strain by themselves; rather, they act on strain through emotional demands.

Research limitations/implications

Some challenges have a strong connection with resources, yet also induce strain. Future models should incorporate the challenge‐hindrance approach to classifying demands and should examine challenge demands that motivate people to engage in stressful activities. Also, although work‐family conflict and interpersonal conflict at work concern different spheres, future research should incorporate both spheres and employ emotional demands as mediating variables.

Practical implications

Given that some challenges can be motivating yet stressful, the consequences of interventions can be difficult to forecast. Results point to the importance of carefully designing interventions and the role of WFC and IPC as potential levers in managing strain arising from complex jobs and other types of challenges.

Originality/value

This paper considers a unique model of demands, resources, and outcome variables that contributes to the knowledge about how to address stress.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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