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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Hannes Zacher and Angelika Bock

In the context of demographic and economic changes, helping mature age job seekers find employment is imperative. The purpose of this paper is to examine mature age job

Abstract

Purpose

In the context of demographic and economic changes, helping mature age job seekers find employment is imperative. The purpose of this paper is to examine mature age job seekers’ proactive personality as a moderator of the relationship between age and job search intensity; and to examine job search self-efficacy as a mediator of this moderation effect. It was hypothesized that the generally negative relationships between age and job search self-efficacy and intensity are weaker among job seekers with a more proactive personality.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 188 job seekers between 40 and 64 years completed an online questionnaire. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling.

Findings

Consistent with previous research, age was negatively related to job search intensity. Proactive personality was positively related to job search intensity and moderated the relationship between age and job search intensity. Extending previous research, proactive personality also positively predicted job search self-efficacy and moderated the relationship between age and job search self-efficacy which, in turn, positively predicted job search intensity.

Research limitations/implications

Potential limitations of the study include the cross-sectional design, sample selectivity, and the omission of possibly important control variables.

Practical implications

Practitioners, organizations, and societies concerned with helping mature age job seekers find employment could provide additional support to those with a less proactive personality and low job search self-efficacy.

Originality/value

This study extends previous research by showing that mature age job seekers’ job search self-efficacy mediates the moderating effect of proactive personality on the relationship between age and job search intensity.

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Laura Guerrero and John-Paul Hatala

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of job search on perceived overqualification by applying the theory of planned behavior and including financial need…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of job search on perceived overqualification by applying the theory of planned behavior and including financial need and openness to experience as moderators.

Design/methodology/approach

Three questionnaires were given at weeks 1, 8 and 12 to 436 practice firm participants. A total of 119 completed all three questionnaires. The authors used partial least squares to analyze the data.

Findings

Job search self-efficacy was positively related to job search intentions and to outcome expectations. Job search intentions were positively related to job search intensity. Financial need acted as a moderator of the relationship between job search intensity and perceived overqualification such that for those with high-financial need higher levels of job search intensity resulted in higher perceived overqualification.

Research limitations/implications

The authors found little support for the theory of planned behavior in the model. The authors found strong support for the role of job search self-efficacy and job search intentions. The use of a three-wave design resulted in a relatively low sample size and the use of the practice firm reduces the generalizability of the findings.

Practical implications

The results suggest that increasing job search self-efficacy and job search intentions while managing the anticipations of job seekers is likely to yield better job search outcomes.

Originality/value

This study investigates the role of job search on perceived overqualification. Findings suggest that malleable attitudes during job search such as job search self-efficacy, job search intentions, and anticipations are likely to impact perceived overqualification.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Book part
Publication date: 16 July 2018

Serge P. da Motta Veiga, Daniel B. Turban, Allison S. Gabriel and Nitya Chawla

Searching for a job is an important process that influences short- and long-term career outcomes as well as well-being and psychological health. As such, job search

Abstract

Searching for a job is an important process that influences short- and long-term career outcomes as well as well-being and psychological health. As such, job search research has grown tremendously over the last two decades. In this chapter, the authors provide an overview of prior research, discuss important trends in current research, and suggest areas for future research. The authors conceptualize the job search as an unfolding process (i.e., a process through which job seekers navigate through stages to achieve their goal of finding and accepting a job) in which job seekers engage in self-regulation behaviors. The authors contrast research that has taken a between-person, static approach with research that has taken a within-person, dynamic approach and highlight the importance of combining between- and within-person designs in order to have a more holistic understanding of the job search process. Finally, authors provide some recommendations for future research. Much remains to be learned about what influences job search self-regulation, and how job self-regulation influences job search and employment outcomes depending on individual, contextual, and environmental factors.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-322-3

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Xie Yizhong, Zhibin Lin, Yevhen Baranchenko, Chi Keung Lau, Andrey Yukhanaev and Hailing Lu

Graduate employability is a key concern for many observers particularly at a time when education is increasingly available for the masses. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Graduate employability is a key concern for many observers particularly at a time when education is increasingly available for the masses. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of graduate perceived employability on job search by integrating theory of planned behavior and to identify how job search self-efficacy, subjective norms, intention and intensity change over time.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from a six-wave survey study with a sample of Chinese university graduating students.

Findings

Results show that perceived employability has a positive and significant effect on job search self-efficacy, attitude, intention and intensity; and that all the repeated measuring variables (except job search attitude) decreased over time.

Practical implications

The study is useful for educators, employers and prospective students. It prompts discussion of reforms in the curriculum to increase graduate awareness of the complexity of the job search process and existing opportunities. The study could also help to explain how job search behavior changes over time.

Originality/value

The findings carry implications for both higher education research and the measures of improving graduate employability. The study fills the gap in the literature by integrating employability and the theory of planned behavior into one framework in order to analyze the process of Chinese university graduates’ job search behavior.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Dana L. Haggard, Serge P. da Motta Veiga and Melody W. LaPreze

The purpose of this paper is to adopt an approach/avoidance coping framework to examine the relationships of job search co-rumination (i.e. engaging in repeated and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to adopt an approach/avoidance coping framework to examine the relationships of job search co-rumination (i.e. engaging in repeated and excessive conversations with a friend about job search problems) and job search talk avoidance (i.e. persistently seeking to escape conversations about the job search) on job search intensity and job search procrastination.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors surveyed 196 new labor market entrants (i.e. graduating students) at two points in time during their last semester in college.

Findings

The authors found that job search co-rumination is positively related to job search intensity, while job search talk avoidance is positively related to job search procrastination. Interestingly, though, the expected negative relationships between job search co-rumination and job search procrastination and between job search talk avoidance and job search intensity were not significant.

Practical implications

This study has implications for both job seekers and career counselors. For job seekers, understanding how their communication patterns influence their behaviors (and ultimately their success) can help them to see the benefits of a balanced approach to sharing about their job search. Furthermore, career centers could organize either job search mentoring or peer group programs to help job seekers navigate the intricacies of the job search process.

Originality/value

This study contributes to understanding whether and how talking (or not) with others (i.e. friends and relatives) about one’s job search influences one’s job search behaviors, such as intensity and procrastination.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 22 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1990

Derek L. Bosworth

The Labour Force Survey is a rich data sourcefor investigation of the factors influencingunemployment. The initial results are based ona linear probability model. They…

Abstract

The Labour Force Survey is a rich data source for investigation of the factors influencing unemployment. The initial results are based on a linear probability model. They highlight some of the influences on job search, the choice of methods, the intensity and the duration of search. The probability of search is positively related to claimancy status and is higher for males and for those in younger‐age and shorter‐duration unemployment categories. Family responsibilities had quite different effects on male and female job search probabilities, except in the case of single parents. The intensity of search was noticeably higher in males, for claimants, for younger‐age groups and shorter‐duration categories. Reliance on job centres fell significantly with age, tended to be higher amongst the less well qualified and lower social classes. With the exception of Northern Ireland, individuals in higher unemployment areas made greater use of job centres. All of the results were duration‐related: the probability and intensity of job search fell with the duration of unemployment; the reliance on job centres increased with duration.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Ans De Vos, Anneleen Forrier, Beatrice Van der Heijden and Nele De Cuyper

In the current war for talent employers are concerned about the idea that the best employees are more likely to leave the organization for another employer (i.e. the…

Abstract

Purpose

In the current war for talent employers are concerned about the idea that the best employees are more likely to leave the organization for another employer (i.e. the management paradox). This study tests this management paradox. The purpose of this paper is to advance our understandings of how employees’ occupational expertise is associated with job search intensity, through its assumed relationships with perceived internal and external employability in the internal and the external labor market. The authors thereby tested the research model across three different age groups (young, middle-aged, and senior employees).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a survey among 2,137 professional workers and applied multi-group structural equation modeling.

Findings

Perceived internal employability negatively mediated the relationship between occupational expertise and job search intensity, whilst there was a positive mediational effect of perceived external employability. Age had a moderating effect on the association between perceived internal employability and job search intensity.

Research limitations/implications

The findings contribute to the scholarly literature on the management paradox, and the empirical work on employability and age.

Practical implications

Organizations can recoup their investments in expert workers’ employability and enhance their retention by providing opportunities for internal career development.

Originality/value

This study is original by including both internal and external employability. By doing so, the authors thereby shedding new light on how occupational expertise might explain job search and how this relationship differs depending on employee age, thereby using a large sample of respondents.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2007

Lynda Jiwen Song and James D. Werbel

The present paper seeks to analyze the role of social networks in the process of career exploration, including its main effect on search intensity, and moderation effect…

Abstract

Purpose

The present paper seeks to analyze the role of social networks in the process of career exploration, including its main effect on search intensity, and moderation effect on the linkage between search intensity and job search confidence.

Design/methodology/approach

It is a longitudinal design with 239 USA and 165 Chinese graduating students.

Findings

Social networks in job search have greater effects on job search intensity in the USA sample. Moderation effects could be detected in the Chinese sample, and guanxi search (a Chinese reference to social networks) minimizes job search confidence and job satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

Social networks, particularly guanxi search in China, could reflect interdependency in job search process, and might constrain job choice.

Originality/value

The paper examined the cultural differences of guanxi search construct, and compared the role of social networks (guanxi search) in cross‐cultural settings.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2008

Monika Hjeds Löfmark

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of job search and human capital of the unemployed in the Russian Federation for obtaining a job the following year.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of job search and human capital of the unemployed in the Russian Federation for obtaining a job the following year.

Design/methodology/approach

Cross‐sectional data on human capital and jobsearch strategies from different years of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey are used in different probit specifications to present and analyse empirical results.

Findings

Searching through friends and directly are the most common search methods, implying a large trust in networks. Moreover, people tend to do the right thing when trusting their networks; in 1994, searching via friends and directly were the only methods with a positive impact. People used fewer methods in 1994 and the impact of job searching is also higher in the latter two samples. This indicates a society gradually adapting to unemployment. As regards human capital, it is worth noticing that the results in 2004 are in accordance with several predictions of human capital theory, whereas the impact of medium education and work experience in the samples based on earlier years is weaker. This suggests that more people have had time to upgrade their skills, to obtain relevant work experience and/or to obtain a post transition secondary education in 2003.

Originality/value

This paper identifies the importance of both different jobsearch strategies and human capital when searching for a job in the Russian Federation. The result presented may be of interest to both policy‐makers and scientists.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2012

Meline Schaffer and Mary Anne Taylor

Research suggests that both internal and external resources are important in determining the level and intensity of job search behaviors among unemployed individuals…

Abstract

Purpose

Research suggests that both internal and external resources are important in determining the level and intensity of job search behaviors among unemployed individuals. Specifically, an external resource, social support, and an internal resource, self‐efficacy, can have positive, facilitative effects on job search efforts. While these relationships are well‐established, the psychological mechanisms that explain the link between these resources and job search behaviors are unclear. This paper aims to explore positive coping and distancing as potential mediators of this linkage in an African‐American sample.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants responded to a survey containing the variables of interest at two job fairs in the Southeastern USA (n=223). Of participants, 70 percent were female and the average age was 39. In total, 37 percent of respondents had an undergraduate degree or a more advanced degree, and the average length of unemployment was 9.9 months.

Findings

Results suggest that the effects of both social support and self‐efficacy on job searches may be due to their impact on positive coping behaviors, which in turn are significantly related to increased search behaviors. Thus, positive coping had a consistent mediational role in explaining how higher levels of social support and more favorable levels of self‐efficacy enhance the intensity of two forms of job search behaviors. Distancing coping had a less significant and less consistent role as a mediator.

Practical implications

This suggests that interventions meant to enhance self‐efficacy and social support of job seekers may have positive effects on actively applying for jobs and on enlisting the help of others in finding jobs among African‐Americans, as well as on the positive coping skills of the unemployed. Interventions should strive to increase these resources while simultaneously providing realistic expectations regarding the probability of finding a job well‐suited for the job seeker. This argues for the potential effectiveness of individually formulated plans for securing employment.

Originality/value

The paper emphasizes the importance of coping strategies used by unemployed individuals as a factor in job search intensity.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 27 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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