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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2012

Annalisa Lendaro and Christian Imdorf

Referring to the sociology of conventions, the purpose of this paper is to examine how various conventions of work coordination and employee relations affect how…

Abstract

Purpose

Referring to the sociology of conventions, the purpose of this paper is to examine how various conventions of work coordination and employee relations affect how recruiters in the domestic labour industry use ethnic categories to match jobs to applicants in the domestic services sector and how institutional gatekeepers relegate immigrant women to jobs with poor career opportunities.

Design/methodology/approach

Case studies of a public job centre, a domestic service provider and an occupational integration service show the core conventions structuring job placement in Marseille's domestic service industry. Based on nine semi‐structured interviews with representatives of the three respective intermediaries, the authors reconstructed conventions and compromises between them related to the use of ethnic categories as significant criteria in recruitment.

Findings

Characteristic compromises of work conventions frame the organisational use of ethnic categories in the job placement process. Market and domestic conventions are particularly crucial for ethnic criteria to become meaningful in the recruitment process as indicators of cheap and readily available labour. Intersecting with gender, they signal competence in the “domestic world” of beneficiaries’ private homes. Ethnic categories are less meaningful, however, when coordination between intermediary, clients and workers is based on the civic and industrial work conventions.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to better understanding ethnic labelling processes in the placement of immigrant job seekers in the domestic service industry. It points to the problematic fact that denying the recognition of foreign certificates in the industry works to the economic benefit of domestic service providers, while it impedes the careers of female immigrant workers.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Book part
Publication date: 19 May 2009

Paula E. Stephan

Universities have a long history of training students to work in industry, and in recent years the number and percentage of students, especially those trained in science…

Abstract

Universities have a long history of training students to work in industry, and in recent years the number and percentage of students, especially those trained in science and engineering, who go to work in industry has grown. Today, three-eights of all PhDs with a degree in science and engineering (S&E) work in the private sector. These placements provide a major means for universities to participate in technology transfer. Students are not only up-to-date in terms of codified knowledge; they also possess tacit knowledge that can only be transferred by face-to-face interaction. They may also have participated as research assistants or as postdocs in the development of a technology that has been licensed by the firm where they are employed. Despite the important role that alumni play in technology transfer, universities rarely track the placements of graduate students in industry. Universities do not also systematically keep information on the contributions that alums make to innovations after graduating. Moreover, few programs socialize students to think of careers in the private sector as a top choice. Instead, many programs, especially in the biomedical sciences, socialize students to aspire to research careers in academe, with industry seen as a distinct second choice. Indeed, many PhDs only take jobs in industry after failing to find an academic position after serving as a postdoc for four or five years.

This paper examines recent placements of doctoral students in industry, using the verbatim records from the Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED) for 1997–2002. An advantage of this data is that we know the name of the firm (and the location of the firm) where the individual plans to work. This permits an exploration of several interesting dimensions regarding technology transfer not explored elsewhere, such as (1) sources (in terms of universities) educating students going to industry; (2) the R&D intensity of the firms where newly trained PhDs go to work and the industrial classification of the firms; (3) the role that proximity plays in facilitating these knowledge spillovers; and (4) the degree to which universities make placements with firms licensing their technologies.

The paper also examines the amount of information that universities provide regarding the placements of their PhDs. We find that although students are ready and willing to provide information regarding work plans after graduation, universities seldom provide information on placements. We conclude with a suggestion regarding the procedures universities could follow to create and make placement data available.

Details

Measuring the Social Value of Innovation: A Link in the University Technology Transfer and Entrepreneurship Equation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-467-2

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Book part
Publication date: 17 December 2004

Matthew Johnsen, Colleen McKay, Alexis D. Henry and Thomas D. Manning

Significant unemployment among adults with serious mental illness (SMI) is a well-documented problem. Estimates suggest that as many as 85% of adults with SMI are…

Abstract

Significant unemployment among adults with serious mental illness (SMI) is a well-documented problem. Estimates suggest that as many as 85% of adults with SMI are unemployed at any one time (Anthony & Blanch, 1987; Milazzo-Sayre, Henderson & Manderscheid, 1997; Rogers, Walsh, Masotta & Danley, 1991). Recent years have seen advances in the development and dissemination of a variety of supported employment services for adults with disabilities. When people with SMI are enrolled in services with a specific employment focus, they achieve employment outcomes (e.g. job placement rates, job tenure) superior to those achieved by people receiving standard mental health services such as day treatment (Bond et al., 2001; Cook, 2003). Supported employment is now considered an “evidenced-based” practice (Bond et al., 2001). Although supported employment approaches vary, evidence-based services share common principles, including (1) prioritizing client preferences for type and timing of work; (2) providing in-vivo and follow-along supports as long as needed; (3) viewing work attempts as part of a learning opportunity; (4) having a commitment to “competitive” employment as an attainable goal; and (5) not relying on pre-vocational training, day treatment or sheltered workshops (Bond et al., 2001; Mowbray, Leff, Warren, McCrohan et al., 1997; Ridgeway & Rapp, 1998).

Details

Research on Employment for Persons with Severe Mental Illness
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-286-3

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2019

Jose F. Baños, Ana Rodriguez-Alvarez and Patricia Suarez-Cano

This paper aims to model the efficiency of labour offices belonging to the public employment services (PESs) in Spain using a stochastic matching frontier approach.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to model the efficiency of labour offices belonging to the public employment services (PESs) in Spain using a stochastic matching frontier approach.

Design/methodology/approach

With this aim in mind, the authors apply a random parameter model approach to control for observed and unobserved heterogeneity.

Findings

Results indicate that when the information criteria of the estimates are analysed, it improves by controlling both, observed and unobserved heterogeneity in the inefficiency term. Also, results suggest that counsellors improve the productivity of labour offices and that the share of unemployed skilled persons, unemployed persons aged 44 or younger, as well as the share of unemployed persons in the construction sector, all affect the technical efficiency of PESs offices.

Originality/value

The model extends the previous specifications in the matching literature that capture only observed heterogeneity. Moreover, as far as the authors know, it is the first paper that estimates a matching frontier for the Spanish case. Finally, the database they use is at the office level and includes the work carried out by counsellors, which is a novelty in the analysis of this type of studies at the Spanish level.

Details

Applied Economic Analysis, vol. 27 no. 81
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2632-7627

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2012

Ahu Tatli and Mustafa Özbilgin

This paper seeks to explore the difficult territory of intersectionality as it relates to inequality and disadvantage in the labour market of the arts and cultural sector…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to explore the difficult territory of intersectionality as it relates to inequality and disadvantage in the labour market of the arts and cultural sector. It aims to first examine the way Acker's concept of inequality regimes is located in the extant literature. Then, it aims to study the dynamics of intersectionality in the arts and cultural sector, which offers an ideal setting with interesting and counter‐intuitive outcomes of intersectionality.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on a qualitative study which generated interviews with students, employers and higher education institutions which are involved in industrial placements (internships) in the arts and cultural sector in Britain.

Findings

In line with Acker, the paper also disputes a‐contextual and cumulative formulations of intersecting inequalities that rely on multiplying the unequal outcomes on the basis of traditional categories of disadvantage. Instead, it argues that multiplicity of identities and forms of disadvantage introduce complexity and contextual depth into the analysis of inequality if we are to understand interplay between different forms of disadvantage. In addition, the paper maintains that intersectionality produces surprising outcomes which vary across industrial contexts, in particular across different sectors of employment. It uses the case of work undergraduate and postgraduate placement practices in the arts and cultural sector, in order to demonstrate the unexpected nature of intersectionality in producing disadvantage.

Research limitations/implications

The study draws on a selection of students, employers and higher education staff from London. A larger selection of institutions outside London could reveal differences between London and other cities and regions in Britain.

Practical implications

Intersectionality is an important concern for diversity and human resources management professionals. This paper provides an assessment of it in an unusual sectoral context.

Social implications

There is need to develop an emic understanding of intersectionality in each sector.

Originality/value

In the literature, intersectionality is problematised at workplace and individual levels. This paper's view of intersectionality is original in the sense that it explores how intersectionality operates at a sectoral level. In doing so, it demonstrates that salience of a strand of inequality in terms of producing intersectional disadvantage depends on the context.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Elizabeth A. Smith

This paper examines the ways social networks, socialization, self‐organizing systems, and systems thinking have influenced the gradual evolution of communities of practice…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the ways social networks, socialization, self‐organizing systems, and systems thinking have influenced the gradual evolution of communities of practice into Communities of Competence.

Design/methodology/approach

Proposes a Community of Competence as a new framework and a methodology to describe, assess, and combine separate strengths and core competencies of individuals, groups, and organizations into a meaningful, goal‐oriented whole.

Findings

Decisions to assign people to work groups are seldom based on current, valid, reliable assessments of skills, abilities, and knowledge, or overall competence. Productivity, job satisfaction, and work quality can be improved when competencies and job requirements are closely matched to maximize job fit. Individual selection criteria, like self‐efficacy, achievement motivation, and emotional intelligence, and group process variables, like workload sharing, can enhance job placement. Members of a flexible, cohesive, goal‐driven Community of Competence will likely make better use of their unique and shared competencies, tacit and explicit knowledge, and experience in more effective and efficient ways than traditional forms of groups.

Originality/value

Helps in understanding that Communities of Competence, corporate universities, and enterprise academies, as dynamic learning organizations, are positive forces driving systemic organisational change.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 17 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

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Case study
Publication date: 1 May 2008

Herbert Sherman and Daniel James Rowley

Derived from field and telephone interviews, e-mail communications, and secondary sources, this two part case describes how Gerald Mahoney, a shoes salesman in a Foley's…

Abstract

Derived from field and telephone interviews, e-mail communications, and secondary sources, this two part case describes how Gerald Mahoney, a shoes salesman in a Foley's Department store, is faced with a problem - Macy's has bought out the Foley's chain and, in doing so, has upscale the product line of shoes and altered his commission-based compensation system. These changes have resulted in less sales for Mr. Mahoney and therein lower commission - a difficult situation since he, his wife, and his daughter were barely getting by on his currently salary. Part A of the case describes an opportunity that presents itself to Mr. Mahoney; to leave his current job with a guaranteed low salary with possible additional income from commissions for a job selling residential homes which becomes purely commission-based to start with after three months of a salary plus commission pay that includes job training. In Part B Mr. Mahoney has decided to take the sales job with ABC Home Builders and receives his assignment. He finds that the working conditions of the sales office are not conducive to selling. His office is located in the rear of a trailer that is extremely run down and is paired with a competitive, noncommunicative saleswoman. The case ends with Mr. Mahoney feeling hopeless and alienated.

This two part case has been written primarily for an undergraduate junior level course in career planning or sales management and deals with the issues of recruitment, placement, training, and compensation. The case may also be employed in a course dealing with human resource management (from an individual's perspective), salesmanship, and organizational behavior.

Details

The CASE Journal, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 1544-9106

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Marilyn Clarke

Graduate development programmes are a well-established strategy for recruiting graduates into the sector at the start of a lifetime public service career. There are…

Abstract

Purpose

Graduate development programmes are a well-established strategy for recruiting graduates into the sector at the start of a lifetime public service career. There are indications, however, that public sector careers are becoming less secure and less long term in keeping with overall career trends across all sectors, a trend that has seen the emergence of employment contracts based on employability rather than job security. The purpose of this paper is to explore a graduate development programme offered by a state-based Australian public sector organisation to identify the extent to which it reflects and supports the shift to an employability-based contract from the perspective of programme participants.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 participants from three intakes of a public sector graduate development programme. Data were analysed through identification of first- and second-order themes as well as cross-case comparison.

Findings

Findings indicate that the one-year development programme partially supports an employability-based contract. The organisation could not promise ongoing employment and job security but did assist participants to develop skills and competencies for the future through its formal training and development programme. Work unit support for employability was, however, much more variable and depended to a large extent on line managers.

Research limitations/implications

The study was conducted in a single organisation and only included current and past programme participants who were still employed in the public sector.

Practical implications

The success of the programme was largely dependent on job placement and level of line manager support. Addressing these areas through better programme design and management can support the development of future leaders through opportunities for enhanced employability.

Originality/value

The study extends current research on employability by exploring how a public sector organisation provides support for graduates in a developmental programme from a participant perspective.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 2 July 2010

Mary Gatta

Purpose – In this chapter I unpack the public workforce system, with a gender lens, to detail and assess its ability to provide job training and education to single…

Abstract

Purpose – In this chapter I unpack the public workforce system, with a gender lens, to detail and assess its ability to provide job training and education to single mothers. Based on that analysis, I suggest strategies to develop job training policy that attends to the needs of single, working, poor mothers, and can help provide them with the education and skills training to raise themselves and their families out of poverty.

Methodology – Analytical review of existing policy and research.

Findings – With 1996 welfare reform, the United States “reformed” welfare policy so that recipients would be immediately attached to the labor market, and have a specified lifetime limit to receive public assistance. As a result, millions of single mothers are now working, but still poor. A companion piece of legislation to welfare, and what is the country's federal employment and training legislation – the Workforce Investment Act – does not provide single mothers with the human capital skills to escape poverty. The United States need a job training policy that actually does provide single mothers with routes out of low-wage work and includes attention to gender in constructing and implementing that policy.

Practical implications – The chapter provides recommendations to craft workforce policy in ways that will help women attain education and training in ways that acknowledge the complexity and structural constrains in their lives.

Value of chapter – The chapter presents a new vision for workforce development policy that takes into account gender and women's lived experiences.

Details

Interactions and Intersections of Gendered Bodies at Work, at Home, and at Play
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-944-2

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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2019

Debpriya De

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the issues and challenges that become a hurdle towards implementation of the “Skill India Movement” at the ground level. It is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the issues and challenges that become a hurdle towards implementation of the “Skill India Movement” at the ground level. It is critical to identify the challenges that are faced or experienced by training partners with the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC), skills councils and other bodies if an effort to resolve the same is to be made.

Design/methodology/approach

A round-table discussion was organised to seek feedback from all the stakeholders who are directly or indirectly involved in strategising, decision-making and implementing the government’s skills initiative. The primary data were collected through discussions and questionnaires, and the official sites of NSDC and Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojna, along with ministry reports, were referred to as well.

Findings

The research is likely to identify gaps in administration of the initiative at various levels and will hopefully provide guidance on removing bottlenecks to achieve effective implementation. It is imperative that the challenges be understood and solutions found, with focus on a long-term sustainable approach, rather than short-term gains for political propaganda purposes alone.

Practical implications

This paper will try to bring value to the stakeholders by exploring the various measures that can be taken to take this mission in a more meaningful direction and work towards giving more employability to the youth and supporting the respective industry segments with much needed trained manpower.

Originality/value

This study discusses the issues and challenges that are impeding effective implementation of the Skill India initiative at the local level and identifies the gaps in administration. Also, it outlines how bottlenecks could be addressed to ensure that the mission is back on track and that the employability of youth is enhanced.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

Keywords

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