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Article

Gerui (Grace) Kang, Lin Xiu and Alan C. Roline

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether women encounter more social resistance than men do when they attempt to negotiate for higher compensation, and whether the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether women encounter more social resistance than men do when they attempt to negotiate for higher compensation, and whether the gender and personality of the interviewer moderates that resistance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted an experiment to explore how gender and personality jointly influence interviewers’ decision making in job negotiations.

Findings

The authors found that: first, female interviewees who initiate negotiations in a job interview are penalized by both male and female interviewers; second, more agreeable interviewers are “nicer” than less agreeable ones to interviewees who ask for more pay, even after controlling for the interviewers’ gender; and third, more extraverted interviewers are “tougher” than less extraverted interviewers toward interviewees who initiate salary negotiation. These phenomena are more pronounced when interviewees are male as opposed to female.

Research limitations/implications

Some limitations need to be brought to the reader’s attention. First, the participants of this study are undergraduate students. While most of them have job interview experience as an interviewee, few have any experience as an interviewer. In order to minimize this effect, we used human resources management students who previously had a course on hiring and selection in this experiment. Second, the order of the interviewees evaluated by participants, acting as interviewers, could cause an “order effect.”

Practical implications

This study contributes to the gender, personality, and negotiations literature, and “fills the gap” on the joint effect of gender, personality, and hiring decision making. Gender discrimination during job interviews suggests that business needs to address discrimination and diversity issues earlier. It may be wise for management to consider the potential bias of an interviewer’s gender and personality on their hiring decisions before the organization makes a final decision on which interviewee should be hired and how much salary should be offered.

Originality/value

To the best of the knowledge of the authors, no prior studies have explored the joint effect of gender and personality on negotiation behavior in a job interview setting from an interviewer’s perspective.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

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Article

Lin Xiu, Gerui (Grace) Kang and Alan C. Roline

The aim of this study is to examine how personality traits influence interviewees’ negotiation decisions as well as whether and to what extent such effects are moderated…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to examine how personality traits influence interviewees’ negotiation decisions as well as whether and to what extent such effects are moderated by one’s gender and risk attitudes.

Design/methodology/approach

An experiment was designed in which participants acted as interviewees and were asked to decide whether to initiate negotiations to potentially increase their salary and benefits. A logistic regression analysis and conditional process analysis were used to examine the effects of personality traits (agreeableness and extraversion) on the initiation of salary negotiation, as well as whether and to what extent such effects are moderated by one’s gender and risk attitudes.

Findings

A significant direct influence of extraversion and risk attitude on a job applicant’s initiation of salary negotiations. It was also found that risk attitudes moderate the effect of personality traits (i.e. agreeableness and extraversion) on individuals’ negotiation decisions. This study thus indicates that the effects of personality traits on job applicants’ initiation of salary negotiations are contingent on their risk attitudes.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the direct as well as moderated effects of personality traits on interviewees’ negotiation behavior in job interviews. The findings of this study thus significantly contribute to the literature in this line of research. Human resource professionals, as well as job seekers, may also benefit from the findings and implications of this study.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

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Article

Laura M. Crothers, Ara J. Schmitt, Tammy L. Hughes, John Lipinski, Lea A. Theodore, Kisha Radliff and Sandra Ward

The purpose of this paper is to examine the salary and promotion negotiation practices of female and male school psychology practitioners and university instructors of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the salary and promotion negotiation practices of female and male school psychology practitioners and university instructors of school psychology practitioners in order to determine whether salary differences exist between male and female employees in the field of school psychology, which has become a female‐dominated profession.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 191 female and 115 male faculty members and 148 female and 56 male school psychologists completed a survey regarding salary, negotiation practices, and job satisfaction.

Findings

Results suggest that females earn less than male colleagues, controlling for years of experience and degree attainment. No gender differences were found regarding faculty participants' willingness to negotiate for increased salary; however, males were more likely to negotiate for promotion. Likewise, no gender differences were evident in practitioners' salary and promotion negotiation attempts, although none were expected, given the salary schedule constraints unique to occupations in the field of education.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is limited to one profession, albeit both university faculty and school psychology practitioners, and was conducted in the USA, so the findings may have limited generalizability to other professions and/or in other countries.

Practical implications

The paper demonstrates that gender pay differences exist despite no differences in males' and females' willingness to negotiate for salary. Consequently, it is likely that pay differences between men and women are due to reasons other than individuals' education levels, years in position, and negotiation practices.

Originality/value

This is the first paper that tracks salaries and the negotiating practices of school psychologist trainers and practitioners. It also finds that male/female salary differences carry over into a female‐dominated profession.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Answer Intelligence
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-870-6

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Article

Henrik Agndal, Lars-Johan Åge and Jens Eklinder-Frick

This paper aims to present a review of articles on business negotiation published between 1995 and 2015.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a review of articles on business negotiation published between 1995 and 2015.

Design/methodology/approach

This literature review is based on 490 articles on business negotiation.

Findings

When analyzing the conceptual underpinnings of this field, two paradigms emerge as dominant. The most prominent paradigm is a cognitive, psychological approach, typically relying on experiments and statistical testing of findings. The second dominating paradigm is a behavioral one, largely concerned with mathematical modeling and game-theoretical models.

Practical implications

Besides offering a description of the characteristics adhered to the business negotiation field, this paper will also suggest recommendations for further research and specify areas in which the research field needs further conceptual and empirical development.

Originality/value

This literature review serves to be the first representation of the characteristics adhered to the budding research field of business negotiation.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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Article

Hui He, Junguang Gao and Liumei Yan

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how to facilitate newcomers’ career advancement within an organization and diminish their intention to quit from the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how to facilitate newcomers’ career advancement within an organization and diminish their intention to quit from the perspective of socialization. In addition, the moderating role of the type of newcomers on the relationship between socialization tactics and career advancement, and consequently, on the mediating effect of newcomers’ proactive socialization behavior, will be examined.

Design/methodology/approach

Longitudinal survey research was conducted in the tertiary industry in four large cities of China. Regression analysis and bootstrapping method were used to verify the hypothesized relationships.

Findings

Organizational socialization tactics could have positive effects on newcomers’ proactive socialization behavior and promotion prospects. And newcomers’ proactive socialization behavior partly mediates the relationship between organizational socialization tactics and their promotion prospects. The type of newcomers moderates the relationship between proactive socialization behavior and promotion prospects and also the mediation effect of proactive behavior, which says a moderated mediating effect.

Practical implications

Employers should put more value on college recruitment, making good use of social media tools in particular. And they should also select applicants with proactive personality traits. Finally, a series of structured orientation programs should be implemented for all newcomers.

Originality/value

This study contributes evidence for career advancement as one of the distal socialization outcomes, the moderating role of the type of newcomers on the relationship between socialization and career advancement, and the classification as graduates from school and experienced newcomers from other organizations holds significance to examine newcomers’ socialization.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

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Article

Hagai Katz and Uzi Sasson

Many social services today are provided through solutions that require interaction between nonprofits and business. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of…

Abstract

Purpose

Many social services today are provided through solutions that require interaction between nonprofits and business. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of the relationship between the different players in such mixed markets. One such market is workforce integration programs for persons with disabilities. The authors studied the relationships and interactions between collaborating nonprofits and business firms within the context of actor–network theory (ANT) by examining the process of workforce integration.

Design/methodology/approach

The study included in-depth interviews and questionnaires with 47 managers of employers that were hiring persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities, as well as in-depth interviews with ten senior managers in five nonprofit organizations involved in work integration of persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The interview data were analyzed using qualitative thematic analysis and content analysis.

Findings

The authors found an intricate relationship between employers and nonprofits promoting workforce integration. While it seemed that both players were involved in different and complementary aspects and phases of the integration process, the relationship revealed complicated power relations, interdependencies and imbalanced collaborative patterns, resulting in relatively symmetric relations, known as strategic bridging.

Practical implications

Business compliance with workforce integration depends on continued support by nonprofit services.

Social implications

Findings are essential for promoting workforce integration, and policies need to support the role of nonprofit services.

Originality/value

The study highlights the co-dependence between nonprofits and businesses, contrary to common views that nonprofits are dependent on businesses.

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Article

Christopher O.L.H. Porter, Donald E. Cordon and Alison E. Barber

One aspect of attracting new employees that has historically been ignored by recruitment researchers is salary negotiations. In this study, we used a hypothetical scenario…

Abstract

One aspect of attracting new employees that has historically been ignored by recruitment researchers is salary negotiations. In this study, we used a hypothetical scenario design to depict salary negotiation experiences in which we varied the levels of salary offer, the behavior of a company and its representative, and the deadlines for receiving a signing bonus. MBA students served as study participants who read the scenarios and responded to questions about perceived organizational attractiveness and job acceptance decisions—two important recruitment outcomes. As hypothesized, our results indicated that salaries, a company's responsiveness to candidate questions, and a company representative's expression of derogatory comments all impact recruitment outcomes. However, exploding signing bonuses had no significant effects, calling into question the negative connotation practitioners have of exploding compensation schemes. Our justice framework revealed that many of the effects that we found for our manipulations on participants' judgments regarding our recruitment outcomes were mediated by perceptions of organizational justice. Finally, we found some evidence of the frustration effect, as procedures that were considered fair worsened rather than mitigated the negative effects of unfair outcomes on job acceptance decisions.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

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Article

Marc Solga, Jaqueline Betz, Moritz Düsenberg and Helen Ostermann

This paper aims to investigate the effects of political skill in a specific workplace setting – the job negotiation. The authors expected negotiator political skill to be…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effects of political skill in a specific workplace setting – the job negotiation. The authors expected negotiator political skill to be positively related to distributive negotiation outcome, problem-solving as a negotiation strategy to mediate this relationship and political skill to also moderate – that is amplify – the link between problem-solving and negotiation outcome.

Design/methodology/approach

In Study 1, a laboratory-based negotiation simulation was conducted with 88 participants; the authors obtained self-reports of political skill prior to the negotiation and – to account for non-independence of negotiating partners’ outcome – used the Actor–Partner Interdependence Model for data analysis. Study 2 was carried out as a real-life negotiation study with 100 managers of a multinational corporation who were given the opportunity to re-negotiate their salary package prior to a longer-term foreign assignment. Here, the authors drew on two objective measures of negotiation success, increase of annual gross salary and additional annual net benefits.

Findings

In Study 1, the initial hypothesis – political skill will be positively related to negotiator success – was fully supported. In Study 2, all three hypotheses (see above) were fully supported for additional annual net benefits and partly supported for increase of annual gross salary.

Originality/value

To the authors' best knowledge, this paper presents the first study to examine political skill as a focal predictor variable in the negotiation context. Furthermore, the studies also broaden the emotion-centered approach to social effectiveness that is prevalent in current negotiation research.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

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Article

Arif Nazir Butt and Jin Nam Choi

This paper aims to enrich the literature on negotiation by theorizing and empirically validating that power is an important moderator of the relationship between…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to enrich the literature on negotiation by theorizing and empirically validating that power is an important moderator of the relationship between negotiator emotion and behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 322 students of an MBA program and executive education programs. The students participated in a two‐stage, mixed‐motive negotiation simulation during which they reported pre‐negotiation emotion, as well as their negotiation behavior.

Findings

The empirical analyzes showed that the relationship between negotiator emotion and behavior was stronger for high‐power negotiators than for their low‐power counterparts. Interestingly, high‐ and low‐power negotiators' emotions were more predictive of their dominating and yielding behavior, respectively. Perhaps, because of their dependence, low‐power negotiators were more sensitive and responsive to the emotions of their high‐power counterparts than vice versa. The results also showed that low‐power negotiators' gratitude substantially reduces their distributive outcome.

Originality/value

The analysis revealed that the strength and the nature of the relationship between emotions and negotiator behavior depend on the power of the negotiator. The paper highlights the need for further theoretical specification with regard to boundary conditions for understanding the role of emotional states in the negotiation context.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

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