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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Wiel Frins, Joris van Ruysseveldt, Karen van Dam and Seth N.J. van den Bossche

Using the job demands-resources (JD-R) model as a theoretical framework, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how job demands and job resources affect older…

Abstract

Purpose

Using the job demands-resources (JD-R) model as a theoretical framework, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how job demands and job resources affect older employees’ desired retirement age, through an energy-depletion and a motivational process. Furthermore, the importance of gain and loss cycles (i.e. recursive effects) for the desired retirement age was investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

A two wave full panel design with 2,897 older employees ( > 50) served to test the hypotheses. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to test the measurement and research model. Cross-lagged analyses tested the presence of gain and loss cycles.

Findings

Results from cross-lagged analyses based on two waves over a one-year period indicated the presence of both a gain and a loss cycle that affected the desired retirement age.

Research limitations/implications

This is the first longitudinal study applying the JD-R model to a retirement context. Limitations relate to employing only two waves for establishing mediation, and using self-reports.

Practical implications

Because work conditions can create a cycle of motivation as well as a cycle of depletion, organizations should pay special attention to the job resources and demands of older workers. The findings can inspire organizations when developing active aging policies, and contribute to interventions aimed at maintaining older employees within the workforce until – or even beyond – their official retirement age in a motivated and healthy way.

Originality/value

This is the first longitudinal study applying the JD-R model to a retirement context and finding evidence for gain and loss cycles.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2007

Arnold B. Bakker and Evangelia Demerouti

The purpose of this paper is to give a state‐of‐the art overview of the Job DemandsResources (JD‐R) model

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to give a state‐of‐the art overview of the Job DemandsResources (JD‐R) model

Design/methodology/approach

The strengths and weaknesses of the demand‐control model and the effort‐reward imbalance model regarding their predictive value for employee well being are discussed. The paper then introduces the more flexible JD‐R model and discusses its basic premises.

Findings

The paper provides an overview of the studies that have been conducted with the JD‐R model. It discusses evidence for each of the model's main propositions. The JD‐R model can be used as a tool for human resource management. A two‐stage approach can highlight the strengths and weaknesses of individuals, work groups, departments, and organizations at large.

Originality/value

This paper challenges existing stress models, and focuses on both negative and positive indicators of employee well being. In addition, it outlines how the JD‐R model can be applied to a wide range of occupations, and be used to improve employee well being and performance.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Hongxia Li and Xiugang Yang

The argument that work engagement enhances job performance has gained wide acceptance among practitioners and human resources management literature. There is consensus in…

Abstract

Purpose

The argument that work engagement enhances job performance has gained wide acceptance among practitioners and human resources management literature. There is consensus in management literature that job crafting can affect work engagement. The concept of callings from theology has been resurrected in job behavior and continues to garner growing attention from practitioners in recent years. However, few studies examine how and why living a calling influence job crafting and work engagement. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between living a calling, job crafting and work engagement for knowledgeable employees through questionnaires.

Design/methodology/approach

The part-time MBA students were asked to reflect on present jobs. In total, 390 effective questionnaires were collected from part-time MBA students of four universities in Chongqing, China for finance, administration, manufacturing, service, technology, medication, education and others. Results were analyzed using SPSS and Amos. The measurement scale is given in Appendix.

Findings

First, the author explicitly proposes and validates the direct relationship between living a calling and job crafting. Second, this study confirms that crafting challenging job demands are significant to vigor subdimension and dedication subdimension of work engagement, whereas crafting challenging job demands not significant to absorption subdimension of work engagement. Third, this study indicates that crafting hindering job demands are nonsignificant to vigor, dedication and absorption about three subdimensions of work engagement. Fourth, this study showed living a calling can enhance work engagement for employees. Fifth, this study finds three groups (eight items) of mediation effect between living a calling, job crafting and work engagement.

Practical implications

These insights may help managers to focus on living a calling and encourage beneficial job crafting behaviors in China. The sample is original and has the potential to contribute to debate on work life balance and particularly the meaning of work/careers in China.

Social implications

This study is an interesting revisit to the old workplace sociology and organizational psychology which has become somewhat neglected these days.

Originality/value

This study has provided insight in the relationships between living a calling, job crafting and work engagement.

Details

Journal of Chinese Human Resource Management, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8005

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Book part
Publication date: 14 May 2013

Anja Van den Broeck, Joris Van Ruysseveldt, Els Vanbelle and Hans De Witte

Several job characteristics have been suggested to influence workers’ well-being. For example, Herzberg (1968) differentiated job characteristics that offset…

Abstract

Several job characteristics have been suggested to influence workers’ well-being. For example, Herzberg (1968) differentiated job characteristics that offset dissatisfaction such as social relations from job aspects that foster job satisfaction such as opportunities for advancement. While Hackman and Oldham (1976) focused on the motivational potential of job characteristics such as task identity and feedback, Karasek (1979) accentuated time pressure as a pivotal job demand. Together these models point out that various job characteristics may influence workers’ functioning.

Details

Advances in Positive Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-000-1

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Cristina Rubino, Christa L. Wilkin and Ari Malka

Recent years have seen an explosion in the study of emotions in organizations, and although emotions play a central role in the job stress process, their role is largely…

Abstract

Recent years have seen an explosion in the study of emotions in organizations, and although emotions play a central role in the job stress process, their role is largely neglected in empirical stressor–strain studies. Our chapter aims to build consensus in the literature by showing that discrete emotions provide a mechanism through which stressors exert their impact on well-being. By examining a larger domain of stressors, emotions, and well-being, we begin to develop and expand upon the nomological network of emotions. In an effort to build on the job demandsresources (JD-R) model, which includes both job demands (i.e., negative stimuli such as time pressure) and resources (i.e., positive stimuli such as autonomy), we include both negative and positive discrete emotions with the expectation that negative emotions will generally be linked to demands and positive emotions will be linked to resources. We also propose that there may be circumstances where demands trigger negative discrete emotions and lead to greater experienced strain, and conversely, where resources arouse positive discrete emotions, which would positively affect well-being. The model in our chapter sheds light on how discrete emotions have different antecedents (i.e., job demands and resources) and outcomes (e.g., satisfaction, burnout, performance), and as such, respond to calls for research on this topic. Our findings will be of particular interest to organizations where employees can be trained to manage their emotions to reduce the strain associated with job stressors.

Details

The Role of Emotion and Emotion Regulation in Job Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-586-9

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2019

Michelle Brown, Maria L. Kraimer and Virginia K. Bratton

Using job demandsresources (JD–R) theory, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of job demands (difficult performance appraisal (PA) objectives) and job

Abstract

Purpose

Using job demandsresources (JD–R) theory, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of job demands (difficult performance appraisal (PA) objectives) and job resources (performance feedback and leader member exchange (LMX)) on employee reports of PA cynicism. The paper also investigates the consequences of PA cynicism on intent to quit and bad sportsmanship.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data on PA demands and resources, PA cynicism and turnover intentions were obtained from employees. Supervisors rated their employees’ level of sportsmanship.

Findings

Contrary to the predictions of JD–R theory, the authors found that employees are most likely to be cynical when they experience high levels of job resources (LMX and performance feedback) and high levels of job demands (difficult objectives).

Research limitations/implications

The study demonstrates that PA cynicism matters – employees with higher levels of PA cynicism were more likely to contemplate leaving the organization; employees with high levels of PA cynicism are rated as bad sports by their supervisors.

Practical implications

Employees are sensitive to gaps between the description and reality of a PA process which can trigger thoughts of organizational exit and ineffective work behaviors. human resource managers need to ensure that employees regard the PA process as valuable, useful and worth their time and effort.

Originality/value

The authors contribute to the PA literature by investigating the role of both job resources and demands. PA research has focused on the specification of job demands, underplaying the role of job resources in employee attitudes toward PA.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 49 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2007

Despoina Xanthopoulou, Arnold B. Bakker, Maureen F. Dollard, Evangelia Demerouti, Wilmar B. Schaufeli, Toon W. Taris and Paul J.G. Schreurs

The purpose of this paper is to focus on home care organization employees, and examine how the interaction between job demands (emotional demands, patient harassment…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on home care organization employees, and examine how the interaction between job demands (emotional demands, patient harassment, workload, and physical demands) and job resources (autonomy, social support, performance feedback, and opportunities for professional development) affect the core dimensions of burnout (exhaustion and cynicism).

Design/methodology/approach

Hypotheses were tested with a cross‐sectional design among 747 Dutch employees from two home care organizations.

Findings

Results of moderated structural equation modeling analyses partially supported the hypotheses as 21 out of 32 (66 per cent) possible two‐way interactions were significant and in the expected direction. In addition, job resources were stronger buffers of the relationship between emotional demands/patient harassment and burnout, than of the relationship between workload/physical demands and burnout.

Practical implications

The conclusions may be particularly useful for occupational settings, including home care organizations, where reducing or redesigning demands is difficult.

Originality/value

The findings confirm the JD‐R model by showing that several job resources can buffer the relationship between job demands and burnout.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 22 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

Marieke van den Tooren and Jeroen de Jong

The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the main propositions of the job demands-resources (JDR) model are moderated by type of contract (i.e. temporary contract…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the main propositions of the job demands-resources (JDR) model are moderated by type of contract (i.e. temporary contract vs permanent contract).

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected in a large, heterogeneous sample from different countries, sectors, and jobs (n=3,845). Hypotheses were tested by means of multilevel analyses.

Findings

Results showed moderate support for the main effects of job demands (job insecurity and time pressure) and job resources (autonomy and social support) and weak support for the buffer effect of job resources in the prediction of job satisfaction and general health. The impact of contract type on the main propositions of the JDR model appeared to be weak. Yet, the evidence that was found suggests that temporary workers may be more tolerant to job insecurity and more likely to benefit from the buffering role of autonomy than permanent workers.

Originality/value

This is the first study to investigate whether the relation between job demands and job resources and employee health and well-being differs for permanent workers and temporary workers.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Todd D. Smith and Mari-Amanda Dyal

The purpose of this paper is to develop and present a safety-oriented job demands-resources (JD-R) model that supports the notion that excessive job demands in the fire…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop and present a safety-oriented job demands-resources (JD-R) model that supports the notion that excessive job demands in the fire service, when not controlled or countered, may increase firefighter burnout and diminish firefighter safety.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach for the present project includes a review of the JD-R literature and the presentation of a conceptual model specific to fire service organizations.

Findings

A conceptual model, relevant to fire service organizations was derived. The model argues that excessive job demands associated with workload, physical demands, emotional demands, and complexity can result in burnout if not controlled or countered. Safety-specific resources, including recovery, support, safety-specific transformational leadership and safety climate are theorized to buffer these effects and are suggested to enhance firefighter engagement. These effects are argued then to improve firefighter safety. Ultimately, the findings will help guide future research, intervention projects and workplace safety and health management programs and initiatives.

Originality/value

This paper and conceptual model extends the application of the JD-R model to fire service organizations. Further, the conceptual model supports the application of safety-specific job resources vs more traditional job resources as a means to enhance firefighter safety.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Wilmar B. Schaufeli

The purpose of this paper is to integrate leadership into the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. Based on self-determination theory, it was argued that engaging leaders…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to integrate leadership into the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. Based on self-determination theory, it was argued that engaging leaders who inspire, strengthen, and connect their followers would reduce employee’s levels of burnout and increase their levels of work engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was conducted among a representative sample of the Dutch workforce (n=1,213) and the research model was tested using structural equation modeling.

Findings

It appeared that leadership only had an indirect effect on burnout and engagement – via job demands and job resources – but not a direct effect. Moreover, leadership also had a direct relationship with organizational outcomes such as employability, performance, and commitment.

Research limitations/implications

The study used a cross-sectional design and all variables were based on self-reports. Hence, results should be replicated in a longitudinal study and using more objective measures (e.g. for work performance).

Practical implications

Since engaged leaders, who inspire, strengthen, and connect their followers, provide a work context in which employees thrive, organizations are well advised to promote engaging leadership.

Social implications

Leadership seems to be a crucial factor which has an indirect impact – via job demands and job resources – on employee well-being.

Originality/value

The study demonstrates that engaging leadership can be integrated into the JD-R framework.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

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