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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2018

Julia Moeller, Zorana Ivcevic, Arielle E. White, Jochen I. Menges and Marc A. Brackett

The purpose of this paper is to use the job demands-resources model to investigate intra-individual engagement-burnout profiles, and demands-resources profiles.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use the job demands-resources model to investigate intra-individual engagement-burnout profiles, and demands-resources profiles.

Design/methodology/approach

A representative sample of the US workforce was surveyed online. Latent profile analysis (LPA) and configural frequency analysis examined intra-individual profiles and their inter-relations.

Findings

A negative inter-individual correlation between engagement and burnout suggested that burnout tends to be lower when engagement is high, but intra-individual analyses identified both aligned engagement-burnout profiles (high, moderate, and low on both variables), and discrepant profiles (high engagement – low burnout; high burnout – low engagement). High engagement and burnout co-occurred in 18.8 percent of workers. These workers reported strong mixed (positive and negative) emotions and intended to leave their organization. Another LPA identified three demands-resources profiles: low demands – low resources, but moderate self-efficacy, low workload and bureaucracy demands but moderate information processing demands – high resources, and high demands – high resources. Workers with high engagement – high burnout profiles often reported high demands – high resources profiles. In contrast, workers with high engagement – low burnout profiles often reported profiles of high resources, moderate information processing demands, and low other demands.

Originality/value

This study examined the intersection of intra-individual engagement-burnout profiles and demands-resources profiles. Previous studies examined only one of these sides or relied on inter-individual analyses. Interestingly, many employees appear to be optimally engaged while they are burned-out and considering to leave their jobs. Demands and resources facets were distinguished in the LPA, revealing that some demands were associated with resources and engagement.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2017

Eric G. Harris and David E. Fleming

The purpose of this study is to more closely examine the trait antecedents and outcomes of frontline employee productivity propensity. The study is the first to use a job

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to more closely examine the trait antecedents and outcomes of frontline employee productivity propensity. The study is the first to use a job demands-resources perspective on productivity propensity and it reveals that the inclusion of the construct into service worker personality studies significantly improves the explanatory ability of hypothesized models.

Design/methodology/approach

The study follows a job demands-resources perspective and uses an empirical study that included two subsamples: banking and health care. Path analyses were performed using two-group modeling to test the hypotheses. Mediation and hierarchical regressions were also used.

Findings

The findings indicate that the conscientiousness trait has a consistent effect on productivity propensity. More importantly, the findings reveal that productivity propensity influences role ambiguity, job satisfaction and self-rated service performance and that the addition of the construct into personality studies significantly improves the explanatory ability of personality models.

Research limitations/implications

This study presents further evidence that productivity propensity is an important construct in services research. Beyond previously established influences on bottom-line service productivity and manager-rated work performance, the current work indicates that it also influences FLE stress, engagement and work outcomes.

Practical implications

Managers work under pressures to ensure service productivity and are well aware of the importance of selecting job applicants who will fit the service role. This study provides additional evidence that the productivity propensity work resource should be considered when selecting employees. The work also suggests that customer workload and the standardization of the service environment impacts the influence of productivity propensity on service outcomes.

Social implications

Given the importance of transformative service experiences that uplift the experiences of consumers and employees, the productivity propensity of frontline service employees not only impacts the ability of the employee to satisfy customer needs, but also leads the employee to experience increased job satisfaction.

Originality/value

This work is the first work to consider the effects of productivity propensity from a job demands-resources perspective and, as such, the first to examine the influence of the construct on job satisfaction and service delivery.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2007

Arnold B. Bakker and Evangelia Demerouti

The purpose of this paper is to give a state‐of‐the art overview of the Job Demands‐Resources (JD‐R) model

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to give a state‐of‐the art overview of the Job Demands‐Resources (JD‐R) model

Design/methodology/approach

The strengths and weaknesses of the demand‐control model and the effort‐reward imbalance model regarding their predictive value for employee well being are discussed. The paper then introduces the more flexible JD‐R model and discusses its basic premises.

Findings

The paper provides an overview of the studies that have been conducted with the JD‐R model. It discusses evidence for each of the model's main propositions. The JD‐R model can be used as a tool for human resource management. A two‐stage approach can highlight the strengths and weaknesses of individuals, work groups, departments, and organizations at large.

Originality/value

This paper challenges existing stress models, and focuses on both negative and positive indicators of employee well being. In addition, it outlines how the JD‐R model can be applied to a wide range of occupations, and be used to improve employee well being and performance.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2019

Andrea Roberto Beraldin, Pamela Danese and Pietro Romano

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how just-in-time (JIT)-related job demands, problem-solving job demands and soft lean practices (SLPs) jointly influence…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how just-in-time (JIT)-related job demands, problem-solving job demands and soft lean practices (SLPs) jointly influence employee well-being in terms of work engagement and exhaustion.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the job demands-resources model, lean-related job characteristics were classified as resources or demands, and a set of hypotheses was developed to test their effect on work engagement and exhaustion, including the potential interaction between job resources and demands. The hypotheses were tested using moderated hierarchical regression and structural equation modelling, based on data from 138 workers.

Findings

SLPs act as job resources in a lean company, increasing work engagement and reducing exhaustion. Conversely, JIT-related job demands act as a hindrance, reducing work engagement and increasing exhaustion. However, SLPs can reduce the effect of JIT-related job demands on exhaustion, and JIT-related job demands may enhance the positive effects of SLPs on work engagement.

Research limitations/implications

The study provides no conclusive evidence on the hypothesized role of problem-solving as a challenge job demand.

Practical implications

The results can guide practitioners’ understanding of how to implement lean without harm to employee well-being.

Originality/value

By employing a well-grounded psychological model to test the link between lean and well-being, the study finds quantitative support for: the buffering effect of SLPs on exhaustion caused by JIT-related job demands, and for the role of JIT as a hindrance. These novel findings have no precedent in previous survey-based research. In addition, it reveals the importance of studying SLPs at an individual level, as what matters is the extent to which workers perceive SLPs as useful and supportive.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 39 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2012

Dina Guglielmi, Silvia Simbula, Wilmar B. Schaufeli and Marco Depolo

This study aims to investigate school principals' well‐being by using the job demands‐resources (JD‐R) model as a theoretical framework. It aims at making a significant…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate school principals' well‐being by using the job demands‐resources (JD‐R) model as a theoretical framework. It aims at making a significant contribution to the development of this model by considering not only job demands and job resources, but also the role of personal resources and personal demands as predictors of work engagement and burnout. In particular, it was hypothesised that job demands may mediate the relationship between workaholism and burnout, whereas job resources may mediate the relationship between self‐efficacy and work engagement and burnout.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey study was conducted. In total, 224 school principals (67 percent women) during training activities completed a questionnaire.

Findings

The results of SEM analyses largely supported the hypotheses by showing that personal variables operate as initiators of health impairment and motivational processes.

Research limitations/implications

The study lends support to the literature on individual resources that underlines the role that personal resources play in work engagement and burnout. It contributes to the JD‐R model by highlighting the role of personal demands (i.e. workaholism), which has an effect on the development of burnout in school principals.

Practical implications

The implications of these findings for interventions aimed at the promotion of school principals' well‐being are discussed.

Originality/value

This study advances the understanding of the role played by personal resources and personal demands in the job demands‐resources model. The value added is represented by the study of workaholism as personal demand, which in turn influences job demands and also the health impairment it triggers.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2018

Jatin Pandey

Job performance is an important variable, which primarily affects outcomes at three levels: the micro level (i.e. the individual), the meso level (i.e. the group) and the…

Abstract

Purpose

Job performance is an important variable, which primarily affects outcomes at three levels: the micro level (i.e. the individual), the meso level (i.e. the group) and the macro level (i.e. the organisation). This paper aims to identify, analyse and synthesise factors that affect job performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Through an extensive integrative review of literature, this study identifies and classifies the factors that affect job performance. A synthesised model based on the schema of demands, resources and stressors is also developed.

Findings

The demands identified are grouped into physical, cognitive and affective. Stressors adversely affecting job performance are classified at an individual level, job level and family level. Finally, resources are classified at an individual level, job level, organisational level and social level.

Research limitations/implications

This review enhances the job demands-resources (JD-R) model to job demands-resources-stressors (JD-R-S) model by identifying a separate category of variables that are neither job demands nor resources, but still impede job performance.

Practical implications

The subgroups identified under demands, resources and stressors provide insights into job performance enhancement strategies, by changing, managing or optimising them.

Originality/value

This study helps in better understanding the factors that go on to impact job performance differentially, depending on the group to which they belong. It gives a holistic picture of factors affecting job performance, thereby integrating classifying and synthesising the vast literature on the topic.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Wilmar B. Schaufeli

The purpose of this paper is to integrate leadership into the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. Based on self-determination theory, it was argued that engaging leaders…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to integrate leadership into the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. Based on self-determination theory, it was argued that engaging leaders who inspire, strengthen, and connect their followers would reduce employee’s levels of burnout and increase their levels of work engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was conducted among a representative sample of the Dutch workforce (n=1,213) and the research model was tested using structural equation modeling.

Findings

It appeared that leadership only had an indirect effect on burnout and engagement – via job demands and job resources – but not a direct effect. Moreover, leadership also had a direct relationship with organizational outcomes such as employability, performance, and commitment.

Research limitations/implications

The study used a cross-sectional design and all variables were based on self-reports. Hence, results should be replicated in a longitudinal study and using more objective measures (e.g. for work performance).

Practical implications

Since engaged leaders, who inspire, strengthen, and connect their followers, provide a work context in which employees thrive, organizations are well advised to promote engaging leadership.

Social implications

Leadership seems to be a crucial factor which has an indirect impact – via job demands and job resources – on employee well-being.

Originality/value

The study demonstrates that engaging leadership can be integrated into the JD-R framework.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 30 November 2010

Veerle Brenninkmeijer, Evangelia Demerouti, Pascale M. le Blanc and I.J. Hetty van Emmerik

The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating role of regulatory focus in the job demands‐resources model.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating role of regulatory focus in the job demands‐resources model.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire survey was conducted among 146 teachers in secondary education. It was expected that detrimental effects of job demands (i.e. workload, interpersonal conflict) on emotional exhaustion would be more pronounced among individuals with a strong prevention focus (oriented towards safety and security). Favorable effects of job resources (i.e. autonomy, social support) on motivational outcomes were expected to be more pronounced among individuals with a strong promotion focus (oriented towards growth and development).

Findings

The hypotheses regarding the moderating role of prevention focus were confirmed, but the moderating effect of promotion focus appeared to be exactly opposite to expectations. The effect of job resources on motivational outcomes was more pronounced for individuals with a weak promotion focus.

Originality/value

To the best of one's knowledge, this is the first study to examine the role of regulatory focus in the job demands‐resources model. The study shows that regulatory focus is important in explaining individual responses to job demands and resources and may therefore be a relevant factor in career development.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 15 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Cristina Rubino, Christa L. Wilkin and Ari Malka

Recent years have seen an explosion in the study of emotions in organizations, and although emotions play a central role in the job stress process, their role is largely…

Abstract

Recent years have seen an explosion in the study of emotions in organizations, and although emotions play a central role in the job stress process, their role is largely neglected in empirical stressor–strain studies. Our chapter aims to build consensus in the literature by showing that discrete emotions provide a mechanism through which stressors exert their impact on well-being. By examining a larger domain of stressors, emotions, and well-being, we begin to develop and expand upon the nomological network of emotions. In an effort to build on the job demands–resources (JD-R) model, which includes both job demands (i.e., negative stimuli such as time pressure) and resources (i.e., positive stimuli such as autonomy), we include both negative and positive discrete emotions with the expectation that negative emotions will generally be linked to demands and positive emotions will be linked to resources. We also propose that there may be circumstances where demands trigger negative discrete emotions and lead to greater experienced strain, and conversely, where resources arouse positive discrete emotions, which would positively affect well-being. The model in our chapter sheds light on how discrete emotions have different antecedents (i.e., job demands and resources) and outcomes (e.g., satisfaction, burnout, performance), and as such, respond to calls for research on this topic. Our findings will be of particular interest to organizations where employees can be trained to manage their emotions to reduce the strain associated with job stressors.

Details

The Role of Emotion and Emotion Regulation in Job Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-586-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2020

Liang-Chih Huang, Cheng-Chen Lin and Szu-Chi Lu

Based on the job demands-resources model, the present study proposes viewing abusive supervision as one type of job demand causing employees' emotional exhaustion, which…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the job demands-resources model, the present study proposes viewing abusive supervision as one type of job demand causing employees' emotional exhaustion, which results in psychological withdrawal behavior. In addition, job crafting can be viewed as a means to acquire job resources, and it buffers the influence of abusive supervision on employees' emotional exhaustion. Moreover, the present study also proposes the moderating effect of job crafting on abusive supervision and psychological withdrawal behavior will be mediated by emotional exhaustion.

Design/methodology/approach

Considering the issue of common method variance, data were not only collected in a multi-temporal research design but also tested by Harman's one-factor test. In addition, a series of confirmatory factor analyses was conducted to ensure the discriminant validity of measures. The moderated mediation hypotheses were tested on a sample of 267 participants.

Findings

The process model analysis showed that emotional exhaustion partially mediates the relationship between abusive supervision and psychological withdrawal behavior. Moreover, job crafting buffers the detrimental effect of abusive supervision on emotional exhaustion, and the less exhausted employees exhibit less psychological withdrawal behavior than those exhausted.

Originality/value

This study proposed a moderated mediation model to examine how and when abusive supervision leads to more employees' psychological withdrawal behaviors, and found that emotional exhaustion is one potential mechanism and job crafting is one potential moderator. Specifically, it was revealed that employees view abusive supervision as a kind of social and organizational aspect of job demands which will exacerbate emotional exhaustion, and, in turn, lead to more psychological withdrawal behavior. However, when employees view themselves as job crafter, they can adopt various job crafting behaviors to decrease the emotional exhaustion, and thus less psychological withdrawal behavior.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 49 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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