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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2012

Sukanlaya Sawang

The purpose of this paper is to examine the possibility of an inverted U‐shaped relationship between job demands and work engagement, and whether social support moderates…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the possibility of an inverted U‐shaped relationship between job demands and work engagement, and whether social support moderates this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses 307 technical and information technology (IT) managers who responded to an online survey. Multiple regressions are employed to examine linear and curvilinear relationship among variables.

Findings

Overall, results support the applicability of the quadratic effect of job demands on employee engagement. However, only supervisor support, not colleague support, moderated the relationship between job demands and work engagement.

Originality/value

The paper is the first to shed light on the quadratic effect of job demands on work engagement. The findings have noteworthy implications for managers to design optimal job demands that increase employee engagement.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 30 April 2021

Ilona Toth, Sanna Heinänen and Kaisu Puumalainen

In response to the increasing interest in entrepreneurs' well-being in both the entrepreneurship and management research fields, this study builds and tests a research…

Abstract

Purpose

In response to the increasing interest in entrepreneurs' well-being in both the entrepreneurship and management research fields, this study builds and tests a research model on the role of entrepreneurial passion for inventing in work engagement in the context of modern knowledge work. The research argument is built on the job demands–resources model, the most commonly used frame for measuring employee well-being in work and organization psychology. The research setting in this study compares digital entrepreneurs and freelancers with traditional knowledge workers and part-time platform workers in terms of passion and engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a quantitative research design, the authors collected data from 349 highly specialized knowledge workers through anonymous questionnaires. The research hypotheses were tested with linear and logit models.

Findings

The results show that entrepreneurial passion is positively related to increased job demands and work engagement and that job demands can have a positive effect on work engagement in highly complex knowledge work.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the entrepreneurship literature by expanding the analysis of entrepreneurial passion outside the entrepreneurship context and into work engagement theory by adding passion for inventing as an important motivational factor in modern knowledge work. Extant literature on the consequences of work digitalization is still scarce, and this study provides insights into successful working on digital platforms.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 27 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Min-Shi Liu, Mei-Ling Wang and Chun Hsien Lee

The purpose of this study is to examine the indirect impact of job demands on recovery self-efficacy via the mediation of job burnout. The study also investigates the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the indirect impact of job demands on recovery self-efficacy via the mediation of job burnout. The study also investigates the moderating effects of school-to-work facilitation and psychological detachment in the indirect relationship between job demands and recovery self-efficacy.

Design/methodology/approach

The study recruited and surveyed 263 employed graduate students in the executive master of business administration program in Taiwan. Regression analysis was used to examine the proposed relationships.

Findings

The results showed that job burnout mediated the relationship between job demands and recovery self-efficacy. The relationship was weaker when school-to-work facilitation and psychological detachment were high.

Originality/value

This study confirms the indirect effects of job demands on recover self-efficacy through job burnout and provides new insights into the role of school-to-work facilitation and psychological detachment to enhance the recovery in the JD-R model.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2021

Alka Rai and Ginni Chawla

This study aims to test the hypothesized moderated mediation process combining job resources, job demands, work engagement, job satisfaction and organizational engagement…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to test the hypothesized moderated mediation process combining job resources, job demands, work engagement, job satisfaction and organizational engagement, which proposes that work engagement can be considered as a mediator between the relationship of job resources with job satisfaction and organizational engagement, and such mediation effect is moderated by level of job demand.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from Junior Management Grade–Scale I officers of 442 branches of 27 public sector banks situated across four States in North India. The final responses stood at 704. Regression analyses was performed through the SPSS macro (developed by Preacher and Hayes, 2004) for testing of H1 and H2 on the mediation effects. H3 was tested by moderated hierarchical regression analysis. The last two H4 and H5 proposing the moderated mediation mechanism were examined in lines with the four conditions suggested by Muller et al. (2005) and Preacher et al. (2007).

Findings

It is suggested that job demands should ideally be adequate and job resources ample to deal with the former, because a suitable fit between these two aspects is related to work engagement, which would further contribute positively to job satisfaction and organizational engagement.

Originality/value

There is dearth of research hypothesizing the moderated mediation process proposing job demands as a moderator in job resources, work and organizational engagement and other work-related outcome relationships. Resting on various propositions and of job demands–resources (JD-R) model, and empirical outcomes of the studies of JD-R perspective, and research gaps identified, this study attempts to propose a unique model of engagement hypothesizing a moderated mediation process, where work engagement might be a mediator between the relationship of job resources with job satisfaction and organizational engagement; such mediation effect is moderated by the level of job demands.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Book part
Publication date: 14 May 2013

Anja Van den Broeck, Joris Van Ruysseveldt, Els Vanbelle and Hans De Witte

Several job characteristics have been suggested to influence workers’ well-being. For example, Herzberg (1968) differentiated job characteristics that offset…

Abstract

Several job characteristics have been suggested to influence workers’ well-being. For example, Herzberg (1968) differentiated job characteristics that offset dissatisfaction such as social relations from job aspects that foster job satisfaction such as opportunities for advancement. While Hackman and Oldham (1976) focused on the motivational potential of job characteristics such as task identity and feedback, Karasek (1979) accentuated time pressure as a pivotal job demand. Together these models point out that various job characteristics may influence workers’ functioning.

Details

Advances in Positive Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-000-1

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Cristina Rubino, Christa L. Wilkin and Ari Malka

Recent years have seen an explosion in the study of emotions in organizations, and although emotions play a central role in the job stress process, their role is largely…

Abstract

Recent years have seen an explosion in the study of emotions in organizations, and although emotions play a central role in the job stress process, their role is largely neglected in empirical stressor–strain studies. Our chapter aims to build consensus in the literature by showing that discrete emotions provide a mechanism through which stressors exert their impact on well-being. By examining a larger domain of stressors, emotions, and well-being, we begin to develop and expand upon the nomological network of emotions. In an effort to build on the job demands–resources (JD-R) model, which includes both job demands (i.e., negative stimuli such as time pressure) and resources (i.e., positive stimuli such as autonomy), we include both negative and positive discrete emotions with the expectation that negative emotions will generally be linked to demands and positive emotions will be linked to resources. We also propose that there may be circumstances where demands trigger negative discrete emotions and lead to greater experienced strain, and conversely, where resources arouse positive discrete emotions, which would positively affect well-being. The model in our chapter sheds light on how discrete emotions have different antecedents (i.e., job demands and resources) and outcomes (e.g., satisfaction, burnout, performance), and as such, respond to calls for research on this topic. Our findings will be of particular interest to organizations where employees can be trained to manage their emotions to reduce the strain associated with job stressors.

Details

The Role of Emotion and Emotion Regulation in Job Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-586-9

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2021

Panagiotis V. Kloutsiniotis, Anastasia A. Katou and Dimitrios M. Mihail

The present study follows the conflicting outcomes perspective of Human Resources Management (HRM) and examines the effects of employees' perceptions of high performance…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study follows the conflicting outcomes perspective of Human Resources Management (HRM) and examines the effects of employees' perceptions of high performance work systems (HPWS) on job demands (role conflict, role ambiguity and work pressure) and work engagement (vigor and dedication).

Design/methodology/approach

Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used on a sample of 524 front-line employees across three Greek manufacturing companies.

Findings

The findings show that HPWS is negatively associated with all three job demands. Hence, the “critical perspective” is not supported. In turn, role conflict and role ambiguity reduce employees' work engagement, although the third job demand included in the study (work pressure) showed a positive relationship on dedication. Last but not least, this study calculates HPWS as both a system and as subsets of HRM practices, and provides useful insights regarding the differences between the two different measurement methods.

Practical implications

The present study brings further empirical evidence in the HRM field by examining whether HPWS is good or bad for employee well-being. Moreover, the findings underscore the detrimental impact that job demands may have on employees' work engagement, and highlights the fact that HPWS might not necessarily be a “win-win” scenario for employees and employers.

Originality/value

This study follows the most recent developments in the HRM literature and examines the dark (negative) approach of HPWS in the Greek manufacturing sector. Finally, theoretical and managerial implications are drawn for improving our understanding of how HPWS influences job demands and ultimately employees' work engagement.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2004

Toon W. Taris and Michiel A.J. Kompier

This chapter examines employee learning behavior as a function of work characteristics. Karasek’s Demand-Control (DC) model proposes that high job demands and high job

Abstract

This chapter examines employee learning behavior as a function of work characteristics. Karasek’s Demand-Control (DC) model proposes that high job demands and high job control are conducive to employee learning behavior. A review of 18 studies revealed that whereas most of these supported these predictions, methodological and conceptual shortcomings necessitate further study. Perhaps the most important weakness of the DC-based research on learning is that the conceptual foundations of the DC model regarding employee learning behavior are quite rudimentary, while the role of interpersonal differences in the learning process is largely neglected. The second part of this chapter explores the relationship between work characteristics and learning behavior from the perspective of German Action Theory (AT). AT explicitly discusses how work characteristics affect learning behavior and assigns a role to interpersonal differences. We conclude by presenting a model that integrates action-theoretical insights on learning with DC-based empirical results.

Details

Exploring Interpersonal Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-153-8

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Book part
Publication date: 17 March 2010

Jason Kain and Steve Jex

Karasek's (1979) job demands-control model is one of the most widely studied models of occupational stress (de Lange, Taris, Kompier, Houtman, & Bongers, 2003). The key…

Abstract

Karasek's (1979) job demands-control model is one of the most widely studied models of occupational stress (de Lange, Taris, Kompier, Houtman, & Bongers, 2003). The key idea behind the job demands-control model is that control buffers the impact of job demands on strain and can help enhance employees’ job satisfaction with the opportunity to engage in challenging tasks and learn new skills (Karasek, 1979). Most research on the job demands-control has been inconsistent (de Lange et al., 2003; Van Der Deof & Maes, 1999), and the main reasons cited for this inconsistency are that different variables have been used to measure demands, control, and strain, not enough longitudinal research has been done, and the model does not take workers’ individual characteristics into account (Van Der Deof & Maes, 1999). To address these concerns, expansions have been made on the model such as integrating resources, self-efficacy, active coping, and social support into the model (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001b; Johnson & Hall, 1988; Demerouti, Bakker, de Jonge, Janssen, & Schaufeli, 2001a; Landsbergis, Schnall, Deitz, Friedman, & Pickering, 1992). However, researchers have only been partially successful, and therefore, to continue reducing inconstencies, we recommend using longitudinal designs, both objective and subjective measures, a higher sample size, and a careful consideration of the types of demands and control that best match each other theoretically.

Details

New Developments in Theoretical and Conceptual Approaches to Job Stress
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-713-4

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Book part
Publication date: 17 February 2015

Jacquelyn Boone James, Marcie Pitt-Catsouphes, Tay K. McNamara, David L. Snow and Patricia L. Johnson

We explore: (1) the effects of work unit pressure on employees’ satisfaction with work–family balance (S-WFB); (2) the effects of individual-level job and family pressures…

Abstract

Purpose

We explore: (1) the effects of work unit pressure on employees’ satisfaction with work–family balance (S-WFB); (2) the effects of individual-level job and family pressures on S-WFB; and (3) the extent to which schedule control moderates the negative influences of work unit pressure and other demands on employee S-WFB – among employees in a large healthcare system.

Methodology

The data come from employee responses to the baseline survey (n = 3,950) administered in September 2012, and from administrative unit-level data (445 units) showing the extent to which units were “on-budget” (within 5 percent), “over-budget,” or “under-budget.”

Findings

Practices associated with cost containment in a healthcare system of 10,000 employees in the United States appear to have a negative impact on employee S-WFB. Working in a unit that is “under-budget” is negatively associated with individual S-WFB. Employees with high job demands, longer hours, responsibilities for children and/or adults, also reported lower S-WFB than employees without these characteristics.

Research limitations/implications

Research is limited by lack of measures specific to healthcare workers, the use of baseline data only, and sample size for some of the analyses.

Social implications

Schedule control makes a difference even under high work pressure. The lack of interactions among variables that typically moderate relationships between work pressures and S-WFB suggests the need for more support for healthcare workers under the strain of cost containment.

Originality/value of the chapter

We include an objective indicator of unit-level job pressures on individual employees, thus identifying specific ways that work stress affects S-WFB.

Details

Work and Family in the New Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-630-0

Keywords

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