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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2018

Lotta K. Harju, Wilmar B. Schaufeli and Jari J. Hakanen

The purpose of this paper is to examine cross-level effects of team-level servant leadership on job boredom and the mediating role of job crafting. Cross-level moderating…

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2898

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine cross-level effects of team-level servant leadership on job boredom and the mediating role of job crafting. Cross-level moderating effects of team-level servant leadership were also investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

This longitudinal study employed a multilevel design in a sample of 237 employees, clustered into 47 teams. Servant leadership was aggregated to the team-level to examine the effects of shared perceptions of leadership at T1 on individual-level outcome, namely job boredom, at T2. In addition, mediation analysis was used to test whether team-level servant leadership at T1 can protect followers from job boredom at T2 by fostering job crafting at T2. Cross-level moderating effects of team-level servant leadership at T1 on the relation between job crafting at T2 and job boredom at T2 were also modeled.

Findings

Job crafting at T2 mediated the cross-level effect of team-level servant leadership at T1 on job boredom at T2.

Research limitations/implications

The findings suggest that team-level servant leadership predicts less job boredom by boosting job crafting.

Originality/value

This study is the first to assess the effects of servant leadership on job boredom and the mediating role of job crafting. This paper examines job boredom in a multilevel design, thus extending knowledge on its contextual components.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Lotta K. Harju and Jari J. Hakanen

Job boredom is an amotivational state at work, where employees lack interest in their work activities and have difficulties concentrating on them. Although recent research…

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2092

Abstract

Purpose

Job boredom is an amotivational state at work, where employees lack interest in their work activities and have difficulties concentrating on them. Although recent research suggests that job boredom may concern a wide range of industries, studies investigating the experience and its emergence in white-collar work are scarce. Thereby the purpose of this paper is to contextualize job boredom by exploring the experience and its preconditions in white-collar work.

Design/methodology/approach

This inductive, exploratory study employed data from 13 focus group interviews (n=72) in four organizations to investigate the emergence and experience of job boredom.

Findings

Three types of job boredom was found. Each type involved distinct temporal experiences: inertia, acceleration and disrupted rhythm at work. The findings suggest that different types of job boredom involve specific conditions that hamper the activation of individual capabilities and disrupt temporal experience accordingly.

Research limitations/implications

Extending the conceptualization of job boredom may enable better understanding of the variety of consequences often associated with the phenomenon.

Practical implications

It is also important for organizations to recognize that there are different types and various preconditions of job boredom in white-collar work, as it may have a negative impact on employee well-being and performance.

Originality/value

The results indicate that job boredom is a more nuanced phenomenon than earlier believed. By identifying job boredom in white-collar work as an experience with various forms and respective preconditions, this study expands the understanding of the phenomenon and its emergence.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2021

Cecilia Toscanelli, Shagini Udayar, Ieva Urbanaviciute and Koorosh Massoudi

This study proposes an examination of the psychometric properties of the French version of two boredom scales (i.e. the Dutch Boredom Scale and the Boredom Proneness Scale…

Abstract

Purpose

This study proposes an examination of the psychometric properties of the French version of two boredom scales (i.e. the Dutch Boredom Scale and the Boredom Proneness Scale Short Version), the antecedents of boredom at work, based on an integrative theoretical framework drawing on the Job Demand-Resources model (Bakker and Demerouti, 2017) and the moderating effects of individual characteristics on the relation between contextual antecedents and boredom at work.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was based on a cross-sectional design with a sample of 363 Swiss workers. First, the two boredom scales were validated through a confirmatory factor analysis. Then, in order to study the relative strength of the predictors of boredom at work, a hierarchical regression model was tested. Finally, the interaction effects between individual characteristics and contextual antecedents of boredom at work were tested.

Findings

Factor analyses revealed a unidimensional structure for both instruments. Regression results showed that boredom proneness, job demands, job autonomy and social utility added a significant percentage of incremental variance to the model. Moreover, a significant interaction between contextual and individual characteristics in predicting boredom at work was observed.

Practical implications

Our findings stress the importance of taking into account employees' experiences at work when developing job design interventions to promote well-balanced working conditions for all, as well as targeted solutions for specific populations, in order to adequately address the issue of boredom in the workplace.

Originality/value

This study explores the relatively under-researched topic of boredom at work, known to be detrimental for individuals and organizations. To date, research on its antecedents has been quite fragmented and we particularly contribute to the literature by investigating this aspect.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2019

Bogdan Oprea, Dragos Iliescu, Vlad Burtăverde and Miruna Dumitrache

Boredom at work is associated with negative consequences, therefore it is important to investigate whether employees engage in job crafting behaviors that reduce boredom

Abstract

Purpose

Boredom at work is associated with negative consequences, therefore it is important to investigate whether employees engage in job crafting behaviors that reduce boredom and what are the individual differences associated with these behaviors. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire study was designed to examine the mediating role of job crafting in the relationship between conscientiousness and emotional stability and boredom among 252 employees (Study 1) and in the relationship between Machiavellianism and psychopathy and boredom among 216 employees (Study 2).

Findings

The results showed that conscientiousness is negatively related to work-related boredom. This relationship is mediated by job crafting. Neuroticism and psychopathy are positively associated with boredom at work, but these relationships are not mediated by job crafting behaviors.

Research limitations/implications

The study was based on self-reported measures, which might raise questions of common-method bias, and the research samples contained mostly women and young employees, which raises questions about generalizability of our findings. At the same time, the cross-sectional design does not allow causal inferences.

Practical implications

Organizations can select employees based on their personality for jobs that predispose to boredom and give them enough autonomy to be able to craft them. Moreover, they can identify employees who need support to manage their boredom and include them in job crafting interventions.

Originality/value

Traditionally, boredom at work has been considered as resulting from characteristics of tasks and jobs. The findings indicate that some employees can make self-initiated changes to their work in order to reduce their boredom and possibly its negative consequences.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2007

Annilee M. Game

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how people cope with boredom at work, and whether differences in “boredom coping” effectiveness are associated with differences…

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8112

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how people cope with boredom at work, and whether differences in “boredom coping” effectiveness are associated with differences in employee well‐being, and safety behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used two methods to gather information for this paper. Employees in a chemical processing organisation (n=212) completed a survey of individual boredom coping levels, self‐reported safety compliance, and a range of well‐being variables. Also, critical incident interviews with a sub‐sample of survey respondents (n=16) elicited strategies that employees use to cope with boredom at work.

Findings

High boredom‐copers reported better well‐being and greater compliance with organisational safety rules compared with low boredom‐copers. Relative to low boredom‐copers, high boredom‐copers tended to cope with boredom in ways that were more functional for themselves and the organisation.

Research limitations/implications

Because the research was exploratory and cross‐sectional conclusions are necessarily tentative. However, the findings add to the scant body of knowledge about workplace boredom and serve as a useful guide to future research.

Practical implications

This approach offers new insights into how the negative effects of boredom might be managed in future, both individually and organisationally. Training in boredom coping skills, in conjunction with job redesign initiatives, may help to reduce the frequency and impact of boredom at work.

Originality/value

Boredom at work is an important yet neglected area of human resource management research. The present study is the first to examine the construct of “boredom coping” at work and to demonstrate a potential link between differences in boredom coping tendency and employee health and safety outcomes.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2012

Mark Skowronski

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between workplace boredom and voluntary work behavior.

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2871

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between workplace boredom and voluntary work behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

The author integrates multidisciplinary theory and research findings to create a process model to guide researchers and practitioners.

Findings

Extant literature on boredom coping and interest self‐regulation suggests that individuals often find ways to increase stimulation when feeling bored. This paper discusses how such interest enhancement strategies have both harmful and helpful effects on organizations.

Originality/value

This paper explores situational characteristics and individual differences that moderate boredom's effects on counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior. A model with testable propositions is provided. Understanding how employees cope with boredom may lead to new insights for increasing motivation and productivity.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 41 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Graham Cole

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

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439

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

Design/methodology

This briefing is prepared by an independent writer who adds their own impartial comments and places the articles in context.

Findings

Addressing job boredom will be well down the list of priorities for most employers. Such indifference is ill-judged though. Damaging effects are likely and firms should be aware of that fact. Job boredom is often defined as a lack of interest in workplace tasks. Poor engagement guarantees that the employee involved will fail to properly utilize his or her capabilities. And since productivity takes an inevitable hit, the significance for companies is readily apparent.

Practical implications

The paper provides strategic insights and practical thinking that have influenced some of the world's leading organizations.

Originality/value

The briefing saves busy executives and researchers hours of reading time by selecting only the very best, most pertinent, information and presenting it in a condensed and easy-to-digest format

Details

Human Resource Management International Digest, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-0734

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Book part
Publication date: 19 October 2020

Magda M. du Preez, Hendrik S. Kriek and Jeremy Albright

Purpose – The aim of this study is to determine the impact of feeling bored on managers' decision-making in the digital age under conditions of increased uncertainty by…

Abstract

Purpose – The aim of this study is to determine the impact of feeling bored on managers' decision-making in the digital age under conditions of increased uncertainty by examining the role of personality trait openness and empirically testing such relationships within the context of retail middle managers.

Design/methodology/approach – Feeling bored was defined within a broader Decision-Making Process Model, which included the personality trait openness. An empirical study with retail middle managers was conducted to examine the relationships between feeling bored and decision-making competence (DMC). Regression models were fit to test whether feeling bored affects DMC and whether the associations were moderated by personality trait openness.

Findings – In the relationship between feeling bored and DMC, the moderating role of the personality trait openness was established. Results showed that feeling bored has a significant negative association with middle managers' confidence levels and risk perceptions when making decisions. Results also provided evidence that the learning component of personality trait openness plays a moderating role in the relationship between feeling bored and DMC. Most notably, the learning component of personality trait openness neutralizes the negative effects of feeling bored on managers' ability to remain appropriately confident when making decisions. In addition, the learning and inquisitive components temper the positive association between mood excited and risk perceptions. Limitations to the study are outlined.

Practical implications – Since trait openness (specifically its learning component) benefits decision-making contexts, it makes trait openness a worthy criterion to include when screening aspirant retail middle managers. The benefits of trait openness (specifically its learning component) for middle managers and their teams (especially when they are feeling bored) are indicated, since learning neutralizes the negative effect feeling bored has on appropriate confidence levels in retail management decision-making contexts.

Details

Emotions and Service in the Digital Age
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-260-2

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Article
Publication date: 23 April 2021

Ashkan Ayough, Farbod Farhadi and Mostafa Zandieh

This paper aims to unfold the role that job rotation plays in a lean cell. Unlike many studies, the authors consider heterogeneous operators with dynamic performance…

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130

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to unfold the role that job rotation plays in a lean cell. Unlike many studies, the authors consider heterogeneous operators with dynamic performance factor that is impacted by the assignment and scheduling decisions. The purpose is to derive an understanding of the underlying effects of job rotations on performance metrics in a lean cell. The authors use an optimization framework and an experimental design methodology for sensitivity analysis of the input parameters.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach is an integration of three stages. The authors propose a set-based optimization model that considers human behavior parameters. They also solve the problem with two meta-heuristic algorithms and an efficient local search algorithm. Further, the authors run a post-optimality analysis by conducting a design of experiments using the response surface methodology (RSM).

Findings

The results of the optimization model reveal that the job rotation schedules and the human cognitive metrics influence the performance of the lean cell. The results of the sensitivity analysis further show that the objective function and the job rotation frequencies are highly sensitive to the other input parameters. Based on the findings from the RSM, the authors derive general rules for the job rotations in a lean cell given the ranges in other input variables.

Originality/value

The authors integrate the job rotation scheduling model with human behavioral and cognitive parameters and formulate the problem in a lean cell for the first time in the literature. In addition, they use the RSM for the first time in this context and offer a post-optimality analysis that reveals important information about the impact of the job rotations on the performance of operators and the entire working cell.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 41 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2019

A. Mohammed Abubakar

Boreout is a psychological state of intense boredom and apathy. Characterized by the absence of mental stimuli (i.e. menial tasks) required to keep employees conscious…

Abstract

Purpose

Boreout is a psychological state of intense boredom and apathy. Characterized by the absence of mental stimuli (i.e. menial tasks) required to keep employees conscious about their environment, and this incessant decline in mental stimuli may turn employees into “professional zombies.” The diversity in work needs and preferences across generations has become a key organizational factor, generational differences have been studied in Western countries, not much information is available about generational cohorts and satisfaction (i.e. career, life and job satisfaction) in developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to provide more insights on these phenomena.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing upon conservation of resources theory, this paper examines the potential effects of boreout on important job outcomes (i.e. career, life and job satisfaction) conditioned by generation (Gen-Xers and Gen-Yers) in the service industry. Data analyses with Artificial Intelligence technique (i.e. artificial neural network) and structural equation modeling were conducted with data collated from Nigerian service employees.

Findings

Results revealed that boreout has a negative impact on career, life and job satisfaction. The hypothesized relationships were significantly moderated by generation cohorts as Gen-Xers and Gen-Yers were found to be distinct cohorts.

Originality/value

This paper advocates that non-western organizations should avoid utmost service standardization and rigid stylization of work processes and procedures.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 49 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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