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Article

Elaine Hobbs Fry and David Grabert

As the number of working mothers increases, the problems associated with being an employee and a parent also increase. This has led to a debate concerning the employer’s…

Abstract

As the number of working mothers increases, the problems associated with being an employee and a parent also increase. This has led to a debate concerning the employer’s role/responsibility in helping employees deal with these problems. Congress has seriously considered legislation that would mandate a certain level of “accommodation” by covered employers. And several states have passed laws granting job‐secured leaves. This article presents some of the arguments for and against such legislation, the basics of the proposed federal legislation, and the impact of legislation on employers and employees.

Details

American Journal of Business, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

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Article

Irene Selwaness and Rania Roushdy

The purpose of this paper is to examine the school-to-work transition of young people from subsequent school exit cohorts between 2001 and 2012 in Egypt, thus, presenting…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the school-to-work transition of young people from subsequent school exit cohorts between 2001 and 2012 in Egypt, thus, presenting an early evidence on the adjustments of the labor market in terms of patterns of youth transition to a first job following the 2011 Egyptian uprising.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis compares the early employment outcomes of those who left school after the January 25, 2011 uprising to that of those who left before 2011. The authors also separately control for the cohorts who left school in 2008 and 2009, in an attempt to disentangle any labor market adjustments that might have happened following the financial crisis, and before the revolution. Using novel and unexploited representative data from the 2014 Survey of Young People in Egypt (SYPE), the authors estimate the probability of transition to any first job within 18 months from leaving education and that of the transition to a good-quality job, controlling for the year of school exit. The authors also estimate the hazard of finding a first job and a good-quality job using survival analysis.

Findings

School exit cohorts of 2008–2009 (following the financial crisis) and those of 2011–2012 (in the aftermath of the 2011 uprisings) experienced a significantly higher likelihood of finding a first job within 18 months than that of the cohorts of 2001–2007. However, this came at the expense of the quality of job, conditional on having found a first job. The results of the hazard model show that school leavers after 2008 who were not able to transition to a job shortly after leaving school experienced longer unemployment spells than their peers who left school before 2007. The odds of finding a good-quality job appears to decline with time spent in non-employment or in a bad-quality first job.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to a limited, yet growing, literature on how school-to-work transition evolved during the global financial crisis and the Egyptian 2011 revolution. Using data from SYPE 2014, the most recent representative survey conducted in Egypt on youth and not previously exploited to study youth school-to-work transition, the paper investigates the short-term adjustments of the youth labor market opportunities during that critical period of Egypt and the region’s history.

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International Journal of Manpower, vol. 40 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Book part

Matthew Johnsen, Colleen McKay, Alexis D. Henry and Thomas D. Manning

Significant unemployment among adults with serious mental illness (SMI) is a well-documented problem. Estimates suggest that as many as 85% of adults with SMI are…

Abstract

Significant unemployment among adults with serious mental illness (SMI) is a well-documented problem. Estimates suggest that as many as 85% of adults with SMI are unemployed at any one time (Anthony & Blanch, 1987; Milazzo-Sayre, Henderson & Manderscheid, 1997; Rogers, Walsh, Masotta & Danley, 1991). Recent years have seen advances in the development and dissemination of a variety of supported employment services for adults with disabilities. When people with SMI are enrolled in services with a specific employment focus, they achieve employment outcomes (e.g. job placement rates, job tenure) superior to those achieved by people receiving standard mental health services such as day treatment (Bond et al., 2001; Cook, 2003). Supported employment is now considered an “evidenced-based” practice (Bond et al., 2001). Although supported employment approaches vary, evidence-based services share common principles, including (1) prioritizing client preferences for type and timing of work; (2) providing in-vivo and follow-along supports as long as needed; (3) viewing work attempts as part of a learning opportunity; (4) having a commitment to “competitive” employment as an attainable goal; and (5) not relying on pre-vocational training, day treatment or sheltered workshops (Bond et al., 2001; Mowbray, Leff, Warren, McCrohan et al., 1997; Ridgeway & Rapp, 1998).

Details

Research on Employment for Persons with Severe Mental Illness
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-286-3

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Article

Fred Seddon, Richard Hazenberg and Simon Denny

The aim of this research project is to reveal participant perceptions of a Social Enterprise Intervention (SEI) programme, run by a social enterprise and designed to…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this research project is to reveal participant perceptions of a Social Enterprise Intervention (SEI) programme, run by a social enterprise and designed to reintegrate socially excluded individuals into society.

Design/methodology/approach

The research participants were the social entrepreneur, staff at the social enterprise, the SEI programme attendees and a representative from an external referral agency. Participants engaged in semi-structured interviews with a researcher designed to elicit participant perceptions of the programme.

Findings

Results of the analysis of the interviews revealed six emergent themes that were interpreted by the researchers as: “social mission focus”, “heroic social entrepreneur”, “social impact”, “recidivism”, “the programme” and “programme attendees”. Results of the analysis reveal that all research participants reported the programme helped to re-socialise the programme attendees and increased their self-confidence and self-esteem. Participants also believed programme attendees acquired important skills and qualifications in general warehouse activities and forklift truck driving, which would greatly increase their future employability. Programme attendees indicated the “real world” working environment was important to their feelings of success on the programme.

Originality/value

This paper identifies a hybrid SEI programme based upon the “vision” of a “heroic” social entrepreneur. It also identifies the advantages of the “real” working environment in increasing the employability of socially excluded individuals whilst, at the same time, increasing their social skills.

Details

Social Enterprise Journal, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-8614

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Book part

Esther Ngan-ling Chow and Yuchun Zou

Purpose – Integrating a gender perspective with a world-system theory, we examine how the recent global economic crisis in China has differential impact on female and male…

Abstract

Purpose – Integrating a gender perspective with a world-system theory, we examine how the recent global economic crisis in China has differential impact on female and male migrant workers. We analyzes how this gendered impact is compounded by intersectionality that results in multiple inequalities shaping their work, identity, power relationship, agency, and family lives.

Method – Our analyses were primarily drawn from 14 surveys of major provinces with higher migration rates, and were supplemented by personal narratives and interviews of migrant workers.

Findings – The political-economic analysis of the world-system demonstrates how the intricate linkages among declines in trade, finance, and production led to the economic crisis in China, with more detrimental effects on women migrant workers than their male counterparts. The intersectionality of gender, class, age/generation, and regional differences has played out in the state-regulated process of migration, configuring and reconfiguring the organization of capital, labor, and production and determining unequal gender relations, class dynamics, citizenship, employment, and family life. Conditioned by complex inequalities, some affected migrant workers, far from being victimized, have demonstrated agency, resilience, and a spirit of resistance.

Research and practical implications – More disaggregated data by gender are needed to understand the full range of differential crisis effects on diverse women and men workers.

Originality/value of the study – This study suggests the importance of considering gender-sensitive policies and a gender mainstreaming approach to addressing gender inequality and improving migrant workers’ lives for their empowerment.

Details

Analyzing Gender, Intersectionality, and Multiple Inequalities: Global, Transnational and Local Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-743-8

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Article

K. Swann and W.D. O′Keefe

This article is the first half of a series concerningadvanced manufacturing technology (AMT)investment decisions. Individual problems withformalised techniques in this…

Abstract

This article is the first half of a series concerning advanced manufacturing technology (AMT) investment decisions. Individual problems with formalised techniques in this field are reduced by the frequency of their joint use in organisations. The article emphasises that it is important to appreciate that the nature, costs and benefits of AMT are complex and the systems have a far‐reaching impact on the organisation.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Book part

Paul Milbourne

These reforms offer a vision of a fairer welfare system where truly no one is written off, where nearly everyone is preparing or looking for work, where everyone is…

Abstract

These reforms offer a vision of a fairer welfare system where truly no one is written off, where nearly everyone is preparing or looking for work, where everyone is treated as an individual and gets the support they need. More importantly, these reforms point the way to a fairer society where children don't grow up in poverty, where disabled people enjoy real equality, and everyone is given real help to overcome the barriers to achieving their full potential. (DWP, 2008, p. 8)Workfare has finally arrived in the UK, but not with trumpet blasts of outrage: it's been smuggled in with lofty rhetoric about ‘personalisation’, ‘individually tailored’ advice and support which will enable people to ‘take control of their journey to work'. (Bunting, 2009)

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Welfare Reform in Rural Places: Comparative Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-919-0

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Book part

Dorothy J. Solinger

The cities, for the most part, appeared up until the middle of the 1990s to be islands within the larger Chinese political economy in which job-secure workers could be…

Abstract

The cities, for the most part, appeared up until the middle of the 1990s to be islands within the larger Chinese political economy in which job-secure workers could be certain that their livelihood, health, education, and living abodes would evermore undergird their and their children's sustenance. At least until the late 1980s, urbanites who stuck with the state sector even considered good treatment on the job a kind of birthright, an entitlement that was sure to be enforced. In the cities, true, there had always been the disadvantaged after 1949 – those without offspring or spouses, the disabled, and people unable to support themselves. But this relatively tiny batch of individuals generally survived in the shadows and out of sight, subsisting – but just barely – as members of the “three withouts” on a mere pittance, in the form of meager “social relief” disbursed by civil affairs departments.8

Details

Work and Organizationsin China Afterthirty Years of Transition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-730-7

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Article

Hitoshi Iwashita

The purpose of this paper is to extend the understandingof how family logic is transferred through mundane practices across the subsidiaries of a Japanese multinational…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend the understandingof how family logic is transferred through mundane practices across the subsidiaries of a Japanese multinational corporation (MNC) in different national contexts.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to fulfil this purpose, a comparative qualitative case study was adopted with emphasis on actors’ interpretations.

Findings

Through qualitative data analysis, three findings and their theoretical significances can be summarised. First, it was found that the constellations of family, market and religion logics were transferred differently. This is significant for Japanese management scholars since it illuminates the importance of actors who perceive the (non-) necessity of logics in a Japanese MNC facing institutional dualities. Second, it was found that the family logic is enacted at different levels and with different boundaries. This is significant for both institutionalists and international business scholars since it highlights the strong influence of language and religion in the transfer of logics from one country to another. Third, it was found that the enactment of the family logic greatly affects the acceptability of Japanese management practices. This is significant for business managers since it further proposes an intimate relationship between Japanese management practices and the meanings attached to the family logic.

Originality/value

The originality of this work stems from an updated comparative qualitative study of the management of a Japanese MNCs’ subsidiaries across different countries, providing in-depth insights for international business, Japanese subsidiary management and institutional logics perspectives.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article

Mike Moore and Barry Spence

The merger of two giant pharmaceutical businesses inevitably affects staff motivation and morale. Whether leaving or staying, staff need support in these circumstances to…

Abstract

The merger of two giant pharmaceutical businesses inevitably affects staff motivation and morale. Whether leaving or staying, staff need support in these circumstances to enable them to cope with the effects of major change. A model for addressing this problem is explored and the beneficial results — personal commitment, job satisfaction, enhanced performance — emphasised.

Details

Employee Councelling Today, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-8217

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