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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Cátia Sousa, Gabriela Gonçalves, Joana Santos and José Leitão

The globalization of work has contributed to a great increment in cross-cultural interactions, contributing to a new impetus in the expatriates’ topic. The costs…

Abstract

Purpose

The globalization of work has contributed to a great increment in cross-cultural interactions, contributing to a new impetus in the expatriates’ topic. The costs associated with the failed international missions are high, and the identification of effective adjustment strategies is of extreme importance, both for organizations and for individuals. The purpose of this paper is to identify the kind of practices that are developed by organizations and their impact on the adjustment of expatriates.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the proposed objective, a systematic review of literature (from the late 1980s to the present day) will be carried out.

Findings

Based on five articles on the topic, the results show that there are few studies that assess the impact of the types of adjustment to organizational practices, with the cross-cultural training and language training being the most common. These practices have shown a positive effect on performance and adjustment of expatriates.

Originality/value

The authors feel the lack of studies that have adequate indicators to measure the integration and effectiveness of the adjustment of expatriates.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Gabriela Gonçalves, Marta Reis, Cátia Sousa, Joana Santos, Alejandro Orgambídez-Ramos and Peter Scott

Negotiating effectively in multicultural contexts or others is not only a very important skill for all organizational elements but also crucial to inter-organizational…

Abstract

Purpose

Negotiating effectively in multicultural contexts or others is not only a very important skill for all organizational elements but also crucial to inter-organizational relations (Adler, 2008). If defined as a process that occurs when one party feels adversely affected by another (De Dreu, 1997). Conflict management styles can be analyzed as a function of personality variables. In this respect, cultural intelligence and self-monitoring appear to be relevant variables, as they are characterized by the demonstration of flexibility and interest in elements that are present in conflict management styles. This study aimed to evaluate the extent to which variables such as cultural intelligence and self-monitoring can positively influence the ability to solve interpersonal conflicts more effectively.

Design/methodology/approach

This study, with a sample of 399 individuals, aimed to test a model that explores how cultural intelligence and self-monitoring are related as predictor variables in the styles of conflict resolution.

Findings

It was observed that cultural intelligence presents itself as a reasonable predictor of conflict management styles, whereas self-monitoring appeared as a dispositional and controversial measure in relation to those styles. Self-monitoring exhibited itself as an important predictor of conflict management, but on the other hand, it had an influence on the choice of the dominating style in conflict situations.

Practical implications

Understanding the predictors of conflict management style and, in particular, realizing the extent to which cultural intelligence promotes a more effective conflict management style can help in the development of selection processes and skill training programs. The development of these multicultural skills will contribute to individual, social and organizational well-being.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature of individual differences and conflict management, demonstrating that some individual differences that predict the styles of conflict management can lead to a certain ambiguity in understanding the behaviour that an individual may adopt in situations of conflict.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Jan Selmer

Abstract

Details

Journal of Global Mobility, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of acai pulp consumption on biometric parameters and inflammatory biomarkers (sCD40L, CCL5, TNF-a and CRP) in apparently healthy women.

Design/methodology/approach

Nutritional intervention was performed with women who consumed 200 g of acai pulp daily during 30 consecutive days. Firstly, they were divided into two groups: normal weight and overweight related to BMI. Then, such volunteers were subdivided into other two groups according to values below or above the median of sCD40L.

Findings

sCD40L (ρg/mL) concentrations increased in overweight volunteers post-consumption of acai (964 ± 542) compared with the same volunteers pre-consumption of acai (633 ± 187, p = 0.03), and the CCL5 concentrations (ρg/mL) decreased in volunteers with sCD40L concentrations below median after the treatment (4.1 ± 1.5) when compared in same volunteers before the treatment (5.8 ± 1.8, p = 0.02). Protein consumption (g) reduced in volunteers with sCD40L concentrations below median after the intervention (96.6 ± 44.5), when compared before the intervention (96.7 ± 33.8, p = 0.03).

Originality/value

This paper concluded that the acai consumption can modulate the inflammatory profile in both stratified volunteers according to the BMI and the sCD40L marker median.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2016

Jose Paulo Marques dos Santos, Marisa Martins, Hugo Alexandre Ferreira, Joana Ramalho and Daniela Seixas

This paper aims to explore brain-based differences in national and own-label brands perceptions. Because price is a differentiating characteristic, able to discriminate…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore brain-based differences in national and own-label brands perceptions. Because price is a differentiating characteristic, able to discriminate between national and own-label brands, its influence is also studied.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses the Save Holdings Or Purchase (SHOP) task with functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the differences in brain functioning for national versus own-label branded products.

Findings

For the same product, the higher priced national brands and the lower priced own-label brands lead to more buying decisions. It is also found that there are brain structures that are more active/deactive for national than for own-label brands, both marked with real market prices. Price is a powerful driver of buying decisions and has its neural correlates. Parietal regions activate when brand information is subtracted from brand-plus-price information. The most surprising finding is that visual and visual associative areas are involved in the contrasts between branded products marked with switched prices and marked with real market prices.

Originality/value

The activation/deactivation brain patterns suggest that accepted models of brain functioning are not suitable for explaining brand decisions. Also, to our knowledge, this is the first time that a study directly addresses the brain’s functioning when subjects are stimulated with national versus own-label brands. It paves the way for a new approach to understanding how such brand categories are perceived, revealing the neural origins of the associated psychological processes.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2019

Joana M. Gonçalves, Fernando A.F. Ferreira, João J.M. Ferreira and Luís M.C. Farinha

Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have become increasingly important in national and international markets because they contribute to the development of local and…

Abstract

Purpose

Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have become increasingly important in national and international markets because they contribute to the development of local and national economies. SMEs often face serious challenges when competing with multinational companies. The purpose of this paper is to develop a method for assessing SMEs’ competitiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a constructivist epistemology, this study makes an integrated use of cognitive mapping and the measuring attractiveness by a categorical-based evaluation technique (MACBETH). To this end, face-to-face sessions were conducted with a panel of entrepreneurs and senior managers who deal with the challenges of maintaining SME competitiveness every day. The proposed assessment system was tested and validated by the panel members.

Findings

The methodological processes adopted in this study provide promising results for decision makers seeking to identify the most competitive SMEs. Specifically, the results emphasize, among other points, the importance of innovation and the human dimension to gaining competitive advantages.

Research limitations/implications

The evaluation system developed in this study is extremely versatile and confirms the usefulness of integrating cognitive mapping and MACBETH to facilitate evaluations of SME competitiveness. However, due to its idiosyncratic and process-oriented nature, generalizations need to be done with caution.

Practical implications

The proposed method can be valuable to researchers seeking to develop mechanisms for evaluating SMEs’ entrepreneurial performance and include specialized know-how and sensemaking in organizational decision-making processes.

Originality/value

The integrated use of cognitive maps and MACBETH contributes to a better understanding of how to assess SMEs’ competitiveness. No prior work reporting the use of this dual methodology in this study context has been found.

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Book part
Publication date: 23 March 2017

Barbara de Lima Voss, David Bernard Carter and Bruno Meirelles Salotti

We present a critical literature review debating Brazilian research on social and environmental accounting (SEA). The aim of this study is to understand the role of…

Abstract

We present a critical literature review debating Brazilian research on social and environmental accounting (SEA). The aim of this study is to understand the role of politics in the construction of hegemonies in SEA research in Brazil. In particular, we examine the role of hegemony in relation to the co-option of SEA literature and sustainability in the Brazilian context by the logic of development for economic growth in emerging economies. The methodological approach adopts a post-structural perspective that reflects Laclau and Mouffe’s discourse theory. The study employs a hermeneutical, rhetorical approach to understand and classify 352 Brazilian research articles on SEA. We employ Brown and Fraser’s (2006) categorizations of SEA literature to help in our analysis: the business case, the stakeholder–accountability approach, and the critical case. We argue that the business case is prominent in Brazilian studies. Second-stage analysis suggests that the major themes under discussion include measurement, consulting, and descriptive approach. We argue that these themes illustrate the degree of influence of the hegemonic politics relevant to emerging economics, as these themes predominantly concern economic growth and a capitalist context. This paper discusses trends and practices in the Brazilian literature on SEA and argues that the focus means that SEA avoids critical debates of the role of capitalist logics in an emerging economy concerning sustainability. We urge the Brazilian academy to understand the implications of its reifying agenda and engage, counter-hegemonically, in a social and political agenda beyond the hegemonic support of a particular set of capitalist interests.

Details

Advances in Environmental Accounting & Management: Social and Environmental Accounting in Brazil
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-376-4

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 April 2020

Joana César Machado, Carla Carvalho Martins, Frederico Correia Ferreira, Susana Costa e Silva and Paulo Alexandre Duarte

Social network sites are key marketing tools that allow brands to connect and engage with consumers. However, there is still a lack of evidence of their value for football…

Abstract

Purpose

Social network sites are key marketing tools that allow brands to connect and engage with consumers. However, there is still a lack of evidence of their value for football brands. This research aims to understand the motivations for fans to engage with their favourite football brands on Facebook and Instagram.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was performed, resulting in 214 valid responses. As the social media strategy followed by the football brand analysed was built around games, the authors divided fans into two groups based on the main method in which the club's games are watched: in stadium versus mediated. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between motivations and fans' engagement, through content consumption and contribution, on Facebook and Instagram. Analysis was performed first with the whole sample and then by group (stadium attendance vs mediated attendance fans).

Findings

The findings show that social influence, entertainment, searching for information and rewards are the most relevant motivations for consumers to engage with brand-related content on Facebook. Entertainment, rewards and social influence are the main motivations influencing consumer interactions on Instagram. Group moderation was only confirmed in the impact of social influence on Facebook page content consumption.

Originality/value

The results provide valuable insights into the social media marketing activities of sports brands, which will assist brand managers to develop strategies for effectively stimulating engagement with the different groups of fans.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2020

Joana Costa and Mariana Pita

The purpose of this study is twofold, being the first to grasp a broad picture of entrepreneurship determinants in Qatar, and second, to explore the intermediate effect of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is twofold, being the first to grasp a broad picture of entrepreneurship determinants in Qatar, and second, to explore the intermediate effect of gender upon other factors affecting the propensity to become an entrepreneur and highlight gender heterogeneity. Combining theories on entrepreneurship determinants and gender, the study analyses the role of education (general and specific to enterprise), skill perception, social context and fear to fail as determinants of new venture creation in Qatar. The objective of the study is to appraise the determinants of the entrepreneurial activity in Qatar and understand if they hold across genders in terms of significance and magnitude. If so, policy actions can be adjusted to overcome gender gaps. This study aims to design policy recommendations to reinforce the Qatari entrepreneurial ecosystem and promote positive discrimination towards women initiatives in the Gulf region.

Design/methodology/approach

To understand male and female propensity to entrepreneurial activity in Qatar, a database from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) was used, considering data from 2014, with a sample that includes 4,272 individuals. To explore how the explanatory variables affect entrepreneurial propensity and if they hold significance across genders, three logistic regressions were run, the first including the entire sample, and the second and third separating individuals according to the gender. Then, to statistically appraise the differences among groups, a Kruskal–Wallis test was run to evidence group heterogeneity. Marginal effects of the model reinforce gender differences. The analysis was performed using Stata.

Findings

Different patterns of entrepreneurial propensity can be found among genders, allowing the exploration male and female determinants. The analysis shows that Qatari women are less prone to start a business when compared to men in equal conditions. For women, age is a deterring factor, contrarily to men. Both genders seem to be unconstrained by the fear to fail, still the self-perception of skills has a stronger effect on women.

Research limitations/implications

First, this study is restricted to the GEM database and covers 4,272 individuals whose representativeness cannot be statistically proved, despite the robustness of the sample size. Second, due to data limitations, the inclusion of theoretically relevant additional variables to the explanation of gender differences, such as economic and institutional determinants of entrepreneurial activity in the country under study, becomes infeasible.

Practical implications

Despite the conceptual and empirical limitations, the conclusions of the study fulfil literature gaps and offer quantitative and econometric evidences and which allow drawing policy recommendations.

Social implications

This study sheds a new light about the policy specificities needed to overcome gender differences and to equalise male and female entrepreneurial activity.

Originality/value

The study identifies gender differences in entrepreneurial propensity. The potential differences are firstly put in theoretical terms and followed by an exploratory analysis comprising statistical analysis and econometric estimations. The results allow examining the profile of male and female entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs, the determinants of entrepreneurial initiatives and gender gaps. The study helps policy makers to elaborate adequate strategies to foster gender equality on entrepreneurship, aiming to increase overall entrepreneurial activity and consequently socio-economic development.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 29 August 2019

Joana G. Aguiar, Alfred E. Thumser, Sarah G. Bailey, Sarah L. Trinder, Ian Bailey, Danielle L. Evans and Ian M. Kinchin

Concept maps have been described as a valuable tool for exploring curriculum knowledge. However, less attention has been given to the use of them to visualise contested…

Abstract

Purpose

Concept maps have been described as a valuable tool for exploring curriculum knowledge. However, less attention has been given to the use of them to visualise contested and tacit knowledge, i.e. the values and perceptions of teachers that underpin their practice. This paper aims to explore the use of concept mapping to uncover academics’ views and help them articulate their perspectives within the framework provided by the concepts of pedagogic frailty and resilience in a collaborative environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were a group of five colleagues within a Biochemical Science Department, working on the development of a new undergraduate curriculum. A qualitative single-case study was conducted to get some insights on how concept mapping might scaffold each step of the collaborative process. They answered the online questionnaire; their answers were “translated” into an initial expert-constructed concept map, which was offered as a starting point to articulate their views during a group session, resulting in a consensus map.

Findings

Engaging with the questionnaire was useful for providing the participants with an example of an “excellent” map, sensitising them to the core concepts and the possible links between them, without imposing a high level of cognitive load. This fostered dialogue of complex ideas, introducing the potential benefits of consensus maps in team-based projects.

Originality/value

An online questionnaire may facilitate the application of the pedagogic frailty model for academic development by scaling up the mapping process. The map-mediated facilitation of dialogue within teams of academics may facilitate faculty development by making explicit the underpinning values held by team members.

Details

PSU Research Review, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2399-1747

Keywords

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