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Article

Walter Holweger, Marcus Wolf, Frank Walther, Werner Trojahn, Annette Mütze, Jan Kunzmann, Jürgen Schreiber, Joachim Mayer and Manuela Reichelt

The purpose of this paper is to show how controlled exposure of electromagnetic fields toward bearing steel vulnerates the microstructure. The ability of Barkhausen Noise…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show how controlled exposure of electromagnetic fields toward bearing steel vulnerates the microstructure. The ability of Barkhausen Noise signal processing is used for detecting phenomena such as dislocation and subgrain formation processes as the beginning of later failures.

Design/methodology/approach

A Barkhausen noise signal measurement equipment is used for detecting subsurface distress of 100Cr6 as a function of the applied electromagnetic and mechanical stress. Barkhausen noise signal is mathematically processed by use of fractal dimension analysis.

Findings

The paper cleary reveals significant impact of electromagnetic field in junction with mechanical loading. Electromagnetic impact depends on the magnitude of the field.

Research limitations/implications

Research limitations are given by the fact that in real field applications, e.g. wind power plants, bearings are exposed by multiple influences and the methodology is not applicable to those conditions.

Practical implications

The methodology can be applied to real field applications in condition monitoring systems. Up to now, no reasonable on‐line measurement is in use determining sub surface fatigue phenomena. The paper hence, reveals the possibility to raise condition monitoring into a new perspective.

Originality/value

The use of Barkhausen noise signal processing, as presented here, is original with respect to real field applications, such as wind power plants with a high demand in condition monitoring, especially off‐shore plants.

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Article

Peter Mayer, Nina Gerber, Ronja McDermott, Melanie Volkamer and Joachim Vogt

This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of goal setting in organizations, especially regarding the mitigation of conflicting productivity and security goals.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of goal setting in organizations, especially regarding the mitigation of conflicting productivity and security goals.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper describes the results of a survey with 200 German employees regarding the effects of goal setting on employees’ security compliance. Based on the survey results, a concept for setting information security goals in organizations building on actionable behavioral recommendations from information security awareness materials is developed. This concept was evaluated in three small- to medium-sized organizations (SMEs) with overall 90 employees.

Findings

The survey results revealed that the presence of rewards for productivity goal achievement is strongly associated with a decrease in security compliance. The evaluation of the goal setting concept indicates that setting their own information security goals is welcomed by employees.

Research limitations/implications

Both studies rely on self-reported data and are, therefore, likely to contain some kind of bias.

Practical implications

Goal setting in organizations has to accommodate for situations, where productivity goals constrain security policy compliance. Introducing the proposed goal setting concept based on relevant actionable behavioral recommendations can help mitigate issues in such situations.

Originality/value

This work furthers the understanding of the factors affecting employee security compliance. Furthermore, the proposed concept can help maximizing the positive effects of goal setting in organizations by mitigating the negative effects through the introduction of meaningful and actionable information security goals.

Details

Information & Computer Security, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

Keywords

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Article

Tomas Riha

Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and…

Abstract

Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and, conversely, innovative thought structures and attitudes have almost always forced economic institutions and modes of behaviour to adjust. We learn from the history of economic doctrines how a particular theory emerged and whether, and in which environment, it could take root. We can see how a school evolves out of a common methodological perception and similar techniques of analysis, and how it has to establish itself. The interaction between unresolved problems on the one hand, and the search for better solutions or explanations on the other, leads to a change in paradigma and to the formation of new lines of reasoning. As long as the real world is subject to progress and change scientific search for explanation must out of necessity continue.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 12 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article

Nancy Meyer-Emerick

Critical theory has rarely articulated an agenda for social change linking theory to practice. This paper provides several examples of “critical theory in practice” and…

Abstract

Critical theory has rarely articulated an agenda for social change linking theory to practice. This paper provides several examples of “critical theory in practice” and focuses specifically on Fay’s Critical Social Science (CSS) model. The methods of conflict transformation are then applied to CSS in order to accomplish two goals. First, political conflicts resulting from decision making can be used to transform both individuals and systems. Second, CSS more adequately accounts for some of the non-rational aspects of human nature, such as our resistance to change, thus improving its catalytic validity as a critical social theory. Together, the processes of CSS and conflict transformation provide a framework for enhancing the potential for citizen governance.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Book part

Joachim Wolf and William G. Egelhoff

Purpose – The purpose of this conceptual chapter is to discuss the limitations of the network organization in multinational corporations (MNCs). Since many IB/IM…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this conceptual chapter is to discuss the limitations of the network organization in multinational corporations (MNCs). Since many IB/IM publications concentrate on the advantages of this organizational form, the focus of the chapter is on identifying the limitations that MNCs need to be aware of when they use network organizations.

Methodology – The analysis is based on a sound review of the literature that refers to the network organization in general and its application in MNCs.

Findings – The chapter shows that MNCs present a context that can aggravate the problems of a network organization. Four types of problems are identified: (1) knowledge transfer between MNCs’ subunits, (2) trust-building and corporate culture within MNCs, (3) subsidiary development and subsidiary managers’ stress, and (4) additional problems of a more general nature.

Practical implications – As a result of these problems, it is expected that the formal, hierarchical structure will remain an important organizational instrument for MNCs. The chapter specifies in which ways the formal organizational structure can help to reduce the limitations of the network organization. Finally, the chapter argues that, among the formal organizational models, the matrix structure should be considered more intensively in the future.

Originality/value of chapter – Since existing discussion of the network organization in MNCs tends to ignore the limitations and downsides of this organizational form, the chapter contributes to a more balanced understanding of the network organization.

Details

Reshaping the Boundaries of the Firm in an Era of Global Interdependence
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-088-0

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Article

Stephan Brunow and Uwe Blien

International immigration affects the degree of cultural diversity present in a labour force. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the consequences of immigration with…

Abstract

Purpose

International immigration affects the degree of cultural diversity present in a labour force. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the consequences of immigration with respect to the level of cultural diversity by estimating employment functions for individual establishments.

Design/methodology/approach

The theory behind the empirical analyses is based on a “turned around” new economic geography model. The data basis used is a linked employer – employee data set generated by a fusion of the IAB Establishment Panel with the Employment Statistics of Germany, which provides very detailed information about individual workers and establishments. In the empirical part instrumental variables techniques are employed to solve the endogeneity issues involved.

Findings

In the empirical analyses it is shown that employment is lower when the degree of diversity is higher, regarding the revenue of an individual establishment as given. From this result it can be derived under the conditions of monopolistic competition (implying elastic product demand) that the establishment is able to occupy a relatively large part of the market. Finally, this implies relatively high labour demand.

Practical implications

The paper provides clear evidence that cultural diversity in single establishments enhance productivity. The question remains whether different employees interact each another or whether they are separated to different tasks within the establishment. In the latter case productivity gains are due to task-specific knowledge whereas in the former one the interaction of different cultures matters. This issue cannot be answered with the given data set.

Originality/value

Negative effects emerging from employing various cultures (such as language barriers) can be compensated. Thus, hiring foreign born workers does not mean a decline in productivity and a loss in competitiveness.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 35 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Book part

Roopinder Oberoi

In the era of financial capitalism, how to manage and hold global corporations accountable has become too multifarious a topic for a solitary focus of one theme, to…

Abstract

In the era of financial capitalism, how to manage and hold global corporations accountable has become too multifarious a topic for a solitary focus of one theme, to sufficiently outline the whole gamut and implications of their activities. Capitalism is characterized by several well-organized antinomies and contrasts, with reflections of critical dualities that bear a resemblance to the primeval paradoxes of Hellenic philosophy. The challenge of governance of capitalism to be effectual entails breaking out of the entrenched precincts of habitual academic silos. Various standpoints while reasonably informative falls short to explain fully the complex interlinkages between the concept of global governance and the state’s capacity to put into effect its will on corporate power.

Spotlighting on assessing the praxis of political economy at global and national level and the corporate reality, this chapter aims to provide a renewed thrust for the focused recalibration of global regulatory regime. In this chapter, the inquiries take the regulation as the main explanandum for elucidation of the shifting governance framework.

Details

Modern Organisational Governance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-695-2

Keywords

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Article

Hans-Joachim Wolfram

Modern prejudice was examined as a potential predictor of overestimating proportions of minority employees in gender-typed occupations. Strength of conjunction error was…

Abstract

Purpose

Modern prejudice was examined as a potential predictor of overestimating proportions of minority employees in gender-typed occupations. Strength of conjunction error was considered as an indicator of distorted perceptions of these proportions. Furthermore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the association between modern prejudice and strength of conjunction error was weaker for gender-untypical than for gender-typical targets.

Design/methodology/approach

Modern prejudice was considered as a predictor of overestimations of black female employees in Study 1 (n=183) and black female older employees in Study 2 (n=409). Data were collected using internet-mediated questionnaires.

Findings

In Study 1, modern racism, but not modern sexism, was associated with greater strength of conjunction error when respondents were presented with gender-typical targets. In Study 2, using a sample scoring higher on modern prejudice than in Study 1, modern racism, but not modern sexism and modern ageism, was associated with greater strength of conjunction error, irrespective of target occupation. Furthermore, there was an unexpected association between lower sexism and greater strength of conjunction error for gender-typical targets, but not for gender-untypical targets.

Research limitations/implications

The findings lend support to the ethnic-prominence hypothesis in that modern racism, but not modern sexism or modern ageism, was associated with greater strength of conjunction error. Furthermore, empirical evidence suggests that target non-prototypicality can dilute the effect of modern prejudice on strength of conjunction error.

Originality/value

This is one of the rare studies examining attitudes and conjunction error in a work-relevant context, thereby bridging the gap between social cognition and applied psychology.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

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Article

George E. Nakos, Keith Brouthers and Robert Moussetis

The international economic trade environment has been transformed in recent years by the rise of several regional trade blocks. The most important of these regional trade…

Abstract

The international economic trade environment has been transformed in recent years by the rise of several regional trade blocks. The most important of these regional trade associations has been the European Union. Many Eastern European countries are currently applying to join this regional group, hoping that it will help their future economic growth. This paper examines the trade impact of EU membership on Portugal, a country that joined the EU in 1986. Portugal experienced significant positive and negative changes in its trade flows in the years following its EU entry. The analysis of the trade data for the first seven years following Portugal's accession shows a deterioration of the Portuguese trade deficit and a vary rapid re‐direction of Portuguese trade towards EU countries.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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Article

Birgit Schyns and Hans‐Joachim Wolfram

Leader‐member exchange (LMX) is positively related to outcome criteria in many studies. In most of these studies, these correlations were obtained using solely…

Abstract

Purpose

Leader‐member exchange (LMX) is positively related to outcome criteria in many studies. In most of these studies, these correlations were obtained using solely follower‐rated LMX. This paper aims to include both follower and leader ratings of LMX and to address the question of the extent to which these are related to a variety of outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a questionnaire study among a sample of employees and their supervisors in banks and insurances.

Findings

It was found that follower‐rated LMX is related to followers' attitudes and followers' well‐being whereas leader‐rated LMX is related to the performance of the group.

Research limitations/implications

A common source bias could be assumed from the results, as only data stemming from the same source (leader versus follower) are significantly related. On the other hand, it could also be assumed that LMX is related to followers' attitudes and well‐being in a different way than it is related to performance, perhaps because the two parties involved in LMX may consider different outcomes to be important for their mutual relationship.

Practical implications

For followers, LMX may “need” a kind of support that leads to positive attitudes and well‐being, whereas for the leader, performance is a part of LMX. This differentiated conception can also be found in literature dealing with other dyadic leadership approaches.

Originality/value

The study sheds light on the different relationships that follower‐ and leader‐rated LMX has on other concepts. It is one of the few studies that comprise both follower and leader ratings of LMX.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 29 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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