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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2022

Baocheng Liu, Jinliang Liu, Yanqian Wen, Qinglin Hu, Liang Liu and Shili Zhao

In this paper, to obtain shear and bending performance of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP)-strengthened beams bonded by geopolymers, the effects of impregnated…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, to obtain shear and bending performance of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP)-strengthened beams bonded by geopolymers, the effects of impregnated adhesive types, strengthened scheme, CFRP layer and pre-cracked width are investigated, and the performance of CFRP-strengthened beams is validated by the establishment of Finite Element Models (FEMs).

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, static loading test and finite element analysis of epoxy-CFRP-strengthened (ECS) and geopolymer-CFRP-strengthened (GCS) were carried out, and the bearing capacity and stiffness were compared, the results show that GCS reinforced concrete (RC) beam is feasible and effective.

Findings

The bearing capacity, crack distribution and development, load–deflection curves of GCS RC beams with different pre-crack widths were investigated. The reinforcement effect of geopolymer achieves the same as epoxy, effectively improving the ultimate bearing capacity of the beam, with a maximum increase rate of 28.9%. The failure mode of CFRP is broken in the yield failure stage of GCS RC beam with reasonable strengthening form, and the utilization rate of CFRP is improved. CFRP-strengthened layers, pre-cracked widths significantly affect the mechanical properties, and deformation properties of the strengthened beams.

Originality/value

Compared with ECS RC beams, the bearing capacity and stiffness of GCS RC beams are similar to or even better, indicating that GCS RC beam is feasible and effective. It is a new method for CFRP-strengthened beams, which not only conforms to the concept of national ecological civilization construction, but also provides an economical, environmentally friendly and excellent performance solution for structural reinforcement.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Jinliang Liu, Yanmin Jia, Guanhua Zhang and Jiawei Wang

During service period, due to the overload or other non-load factors, diagonal cracks of the pre-stressed concrete beam are seriously affecting the safety of the bridge…

Abstract

Purpose

During service period, due to the overload or other non-load factors, diagonal cracks of the pre-stressed concrete beam are seriously affecting the safety of the bridge structure. The purpose of this paper is to quickly realize the shear bearing capacity and shear stiffness through maximum width of the diagonal cracks and make correct judgments.

Design/methodology/approach

Through the shear failure test of four test beams, collecting data of diagonal cracks and shear stiffness loss value. According to the deformation curve of the shear stiffness, and combined with the calculation formula of the maximum width of diagonal cracks, the formula for calculating the effective shear stiffness based on the maximum width of diagonal cracks is deduced, then the results are verified by test data. Data regression method is used to establish the effective shear stiffness loss ratio calculation formula, the maximum width of diagonal cracks used as a variable factor, and the accuracy of this formula is verified by comparing the shear failure test results of pre-stressed hollow plates.

Findings

With the increase in width of the diagonal crack, the loss rate of shear stiffness of the concrete beams is initially fast and then becomes slow. The calculation formulae for shear stiffness based on the maximum width of the diagonal cracks were deduced, and the feasibility and accuracy of the formulae were verified by analysis and calculation of shear test data.

Originality/value

A method for quickly determine the shear stiffness loss of structures by using maximum width of the diagonal cracks is established, and using this method, engineers can quickly determine effective shear stiffness loss ratio, without complex calculations. So this method not only ensures the safety of human life, but also saves money.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 September 2022

Jinliang Liu and Xincheng Su

The effects of failure mode and strain conditions of CFRP, concrete and stirrups on the shear capacity of reinforced beams bonded by geopolymer and epoxy are studied. In…

Abstract

Purpose

The effects of failure mode and strain conditions of CFRP, concrete and stirrups on the shear capacity of reinforced beams bonded by geopolymer and epoxy are studied. In addition, a prediction model of the ultimate bearing capacity of CFRP-shear-strengthened beams is proposed, which considers adhesive performance parameters adhesive performance parameter ßE and FRP width parameter ßw.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents an experimental study on ultimate bearing capacity of CFRP-shear-strengthened pre-cracked beams with geopolymer and epoxy resin, which considers parameters such as impregnated adhesives types and CFRP-strengthened scheme.

Findings

The failure modes of CFRP-strengthened beams bonded by geopolymer are the combination of the CFRP-concrete interface substrate failure and fracture failure of CFRP, and that of epoxy is the local substrate failures with small area. The ultimate load of CFRP-strengthened beams is directly affected by the failure modes. The ultimate bearing capacity of CFRP-strengthened beams with geopolymer is 91.4% of that of epoxy resin. Compared with ultimate bearing capacity of CFRP-strengthened beams with U-shaped, that of complete-wrapping increases by 2.5%. Moreover, the stirrup peak strain is reduced by more than 30% in CFRP-strengthened beams bonded with geopolymer and epoxy resin in comparison with the unstrengthened beam. The existing prediction model cannot accurately predict the CFRP shear capacity contribution of strengthened beams with different CFRP-strengthened schemes and adhesive properties. The estimated results are much lower than the test data, and the deviation is much larger than 20%.

Originality/value

Geopolymer alternative to epoxy as an adhesive is feasible and effective for CFRP reinforcement. Furthermore, the accuracy is improved by introducing parameters about adhesive properties based on the existing prediction model. The estimated results are in excellent agreement with the test data, and the deviation is controlled within −12.80%, and the model is suitable for predicting the shear capacity of FRP-strengthened beams with ßf = 90° in shear capacity database.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 March 2022

Jinliang Liu and Fangpu Yan

In this paper, the effects of geopolymer adhesive, the number of CFRP layers and the width of pre-crack on the flexural performance of reinforced concrete beams…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, the effects of geopolymer adhesive, the number of CFRP layers and the width of pre-crack on the flexural performance of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with CFRP were studied, and the flexural capacity of strengthened beams was calculated theoretically.

Design/methodology/approach

Reinforced concrete beams were strengthened with CFRP by geopolymer adhesive, and flexural load tests were conducted to observe the reinforcement effect. Based on the method of calculating the flexural capacity of reinforced concrete beams, a theoretical calculation model on the flexural capacity of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with geopolymer adhesive bonded CFRP was established.

Findings

The test data shown the flexural capacity of epoxy resin adhesive CFRP strengthened reinforced concrete beams is 7.76% higher than that geopolymer adhesive is used. The flexural capacity of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with three layers of CFRP is 1.86% higher than that two layers are adopted. The mean ratio of the test data and the calculation results of the flexural capacity is 0.973, and the mean square error is 0.008. It can be seen that the test data are in good agreement with the theoretical value.

Originality/value

This paper provides data support for the popularization and application of the new environment-friendly reinforcement technology, contributes to the cause of environmental protection, and provides a new method for strengthening reinforced concrete beams.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Jinliang Liu, Yanmin Jia, Guanhua Zhang and Jiawei Wang

In the freeze-thaw zone, the pre-stressed concrete of bridge structure will be damaged by freezing-thawing, the bearing capacity of structure will decrease and the safety…

Abstract

Purpose

In the freeze-thaw zone, the pre-stressed concrete of bridge structure will be damaged by freezing-thawing, the bearing capacity of structure will decrease and the safety will be affected. The purpose of this paper is to establish the time-dependent resistance degradation model of structure in the freeze-thaw zone, and analysis the structural reliability and remaining service life in different freeze-thaw zones.

Design/methodology/approach

First, according to the theory of structural design, a calculation model of the resistance of pre-stressed concrete structures in f freeze-thaw zone is established. Second, the time-dependent resistance model was verified by the test beam bending failure test results done by the research group, which has been in service for 20 years in freeze-thaw zone. Third, using JC algorithm in MATLAB to calculate the index on the reliability of pre-stressed concrete structure in frozen thawed zones, forecasting the s remaining service life of structure.

Findings

First, the calculation model of the resistance of pre-stressed concrete structures in freeze-thaw zone is accurate and it has excellent applicability. Second, the structural resistance deterioration time in Wet-Warm-Frozen Zone is the earliest. Third, once the pre-stressed reinforcement rusts, the structural reliability index will reach limit value quickly. Finally, the remaining service life of structure meets the designed expectation value only in a few of freeze-thaw zones in China.

Originality/value

The research will provide a reference for the design on the durability of a pre-stressed concrete structure in the freeze-thaw zone. In order to verify the security of pre-stressed concrete structures in the freeze-thaw zone, engineers can use the model presented in this paper for durability checking, it has an important significance.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 December 2018

Jinliang Liu, Yanmin Jia, Guanhua Zhang and Jiawei Wang

The calculation of the crack width is necessary for the design of prestressed concrete (PC) members. The purpose of this paper is to develop a numerical model based on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The calculation of the crack width is necessary for the design of prestressed concrete (PC) members. The purpose of this paper is to develop a numerical model based on the bond-slip theory to calculate the crack width in PC beams.

Design/methodology/approach

Stress calculation method for common reinforcement after beam crack has occurred depends on the difference in the bonding performance between prestressed reinforcement and common reinforcement. A numerical calculation model for determining the crack width in PC beams is developed based on the bond-slip theory, and verified using experimental data. The calculation values obtained by the proposed numerical model and code formulas are compared, and the applicability of the numerical model is evaluated.

Findings

The theoretical analysis and experimental results verified that the crack width of PC members calculated based on the bond-slip theory in this study is reasonable. Furthermore, the stress calculation method for the common reinforcement is verified. Compared with the model calculation results obtained in this study, the results obtained from code formulas are more conservative.

Originality/value

The numerical calculation model for crack width proposed in this study can be used by engineers as a reference for calculating the crack width in PC beams to ensure the durability of the PC member.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 July 2019

Guanhua Zhang, Jiawei Wang, Jinliang Liu, Yanmin Jia and Jigang Han

During service, cracks are caused in prestressed concrete beams owing to overload or other non-load factors. These cracks significantly affect the safety of bridge…

Abstract

Purpose

During service, cracks are caused in prestressed concrete beams owing to overload or other non-load factors. These cracks significantly affect the safety of bridge structures. The purpose of this paper is to carry out a non-linear iterative calculation for a section of a prestressed concrete beam and obtain the change in stiffness after the section cracks.

Design/methodology/approach

The existing stress of prestressed reinforcement was measured by performing a boring stress release test on two pieces of an in-service 16 m prestressed concrete hollow plate. Considering the non-linear effects of materials, the calculation model of the loss in the flexural stiffness of the prestressed concrete beam was established based on the existing prestress. The accuracy of the non-linear calculation method and the results obtained for the section were verified by conducting a bending destruction test on two pieces of the 16 m prestressed concrete hollow plate in the same batch and by utilising the measured strain and displacement data on the concrete at the top edge of the midspan section under all load levels.

Findings

The flexural stiffness of the section decreases rapidly at first and then gradually, and structural rigidity is sensitive to the initial cracking of the beam. The method for calculating the loss in the flexural stiffness of the section established with the existing stress of prestressed reinforcement as a parameter is accurate and feasible. It realizes the possibility of assessing the loss in the rigidity of a prestressed concrete structure by adopting the existing stress of prestressed reinforcement as a parameter.

Originality/value

A method for quickly determining the loss in the stiffness of structures using existing prestress is established. By employing this method, engineers can rapidly determine whether a bridge is dangerous or not without performing a loading test. Thus, this method not only ensures the safety of human life, but also reduces the cost of testing.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Jiawei Wang, Jinliang Liu, Guanhua Zhang and Yanmin Jia

The calculation of the shear capacity of inclined section for prestressed reinforced concrete beams is an important topic in the design of concrete members. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

The calculation of the shear capacity of inclined section for prestressed reinforced concrete beams is an important topic in the design of concrete members. The purpose of this paper, based on the truss-arch model, is to analyze the shear mechanism in prestressed reinforced concrete beams and establish the calculation formula for shear capacity.

Design/methodology/approach

Considering the effect of the prestressed reinforcement axial force on the angle of the diagonal struts and regression coefficient of softening cocalculation of shear capacity is established. According to the shape of the cracks of prestressed reinforced concrete beams under shear compression failure, the tie-arch model for the calculation of shear capacity is established. Shear-failure-test beam results are collected to verify the established formula for shear bearing capacity.

Findings

Through theoretical analysis and experimental beam verification, it is confirmed in this study that the truss-arch model can be used to analyze the shear mechanism of prestressed reinforced concrete members accurately. The calculation formula for the angle of the diagonal struts chosen by considering the effect of prestress is accurate. The relationship between the softening coefficient of concrete and strength of concrete that is established is correct. Considering the effect of the destruction of beam shear plasticity of the concrete on the surface crack shape, the tie-arch model, which is established where the arch axis is parabolic, is applicable.

Originality/value

The formula for shear capacity of prestressed reinforced concrete beams based on this theoretical model can guarantee the effectiveness of the calculation results when the structural properties vary significantly. Engineers can calculate the parameters of prestressed reinforced concrete beams by using the shear capacity calculation formula proposed in this paper.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 June 2020

Jiawei Wang, Jinliang Liu, Guanhua Zhang and Jigang Han

Considering the “size effect” and the properties degradation of building materials on the strengthened engineering, in this paper, the technology of pasting steel plate…

Abstract

Purpose

Considering the “size effect” and the properties degradation of building materials on the strengthened engineering, in this paper, the technology of pasting steel plate was adopted to shear strengthen a 16 m prestressed concrete hollow slab, which had serviced 20 years in cold regions. The shear properties of shear strengthen beams are analyzed.

Design/methodology/approach

Shear loading test of the shear strengthened beam and the contrast beam was conducted. Then the mechanical characteristics, failure mechanism, the mechanical response and shear capacity of shear strengthened beam and contrast beam had been discussed.

Findings

The failure mode of shear strengthened beam and contrast beam was shear compression failure, and the bond failure between concrete and prestressed reinforcement happened in both of test beams. The shear strengthening method of pasting steel plate can effectively improve the mechanical response for the shear strengthened beam. Compared with the contrast beam, the cracking load and failure shear capacity for the shear strengthened beam can be effectively increased by 12.2 and 27.6%, respectively.

Originality/value

The research results can be a reference for the detection and evaluation of shear strengthened bridges, which are strengthened by pasting steel plate. Engineers can refer to the shear strengthening method in this paper to strengthen the existing bridge, which can guarantee the safety of shear strengthened bridges.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 May 2020

Jinlong Lai, Jinliang Liu, Jianyong An, Hang Jia and Jia Ma

Timoshenko deformation calculation theory is suited to open section beam, which is not suited to closed section beam due to the difference stress distribution between the…

Abstract

Purpose

Timoshenko deformation calculation theory is suited to open section beam, which is not suited to closed section beam due to the difference stress distribution between the open and the closed section beam. This study aims to modify the deflection formula for prestressed concrete hollow slab (closed section beam) based on the Timoshenko theory.

Design/methodology/approach

(1) The deflection curves of the prestressed concrete hollow slab beam were obtained under a single point force; (2) linear phases of the deflection values, which were calculated by Timoshenko theory and ABAQUS, were compared with the measured values; (3) a modified coefficient related to the loading location was obtained to modify the Timoshenko theoretical formula in calculating the deflection of the prestressed concrete hollow slab.

Findings

(1) There is a large difference between the calculated values and the measured values at 4.3 < a/H < 7.7, and the differences are between 24 and 33 percent; (2) the Timoshenko deflection formula has been modified to fit for the calculation of the prestressed concrete hollow slab. The mean of f/ft is 1.01, and the variation coefficient is 0.09 after modification. Therefore, the modified formula can be better applied in the deflection calculation of the prestressed concrete hollow slab.

Originality/value

The Timoshenko theory is the most classical theory, which is often used to calculate the deformation of beams. The modified deflection formula for prestressed concrete hollow slab based on the Timoshenko theory is reliable and convenient, which can help engineers to calculate the deflection for closed section beam quickly.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

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