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This study examines how the structure of referent networks, or the social network defined by knowing others’ reward levels, affects perceptions of distributive justice…
This study examines how the structure of referent networks, or the social network defined by knowing others’ reward levels, affects perceptions of distributive justice. The homogeneity of rewards in the referent network, the amount of inequality in the referent network, and an individual’s reward level are all associated with distributive justice perceptions. Several moderating relationships are also examined.
We relied on data from a controlled laboratory experiment to test a series of theoretically derived hypotheses.
The study shows that several aspects about the structure of the referent network are important for shaping perceptions of distributive justice. Specifically, the reward heterogeneity and amount of inequality in the network are found to be negatively associated with distributive justice, while reward levels are found to be positively associated with distributive justice. Furthermore, the effect of reward levels on distributive justice is moderated by both (i) the presence of a referential standard for rewards and (ii) the amount of inequality in the network.
While being among the first studies to demonstrate effects of referent networks on perceptions of fairness, it is unclear how group memberships combine with referent network effects and which factors may blur these relationships in uncontrolled environments. Subsequent scholarship on the effect of referent networks on justice perceptions should leverage multiple data sources.
Originality/Value of Chapter
Research on the effects of referents on justice perceptions has focused on particular referent individuals. We recast this issue in terms of referent networks, which highlights the empirical reality that individuals have a variety of sources or alters which could operate as referents.
Financial stress has been found to contribute to mental health deterioration associated with job loss. This study examined whether specific types of income support…
Financial stress has been found to contribute to mental health deterioration associated with job loss. This study examined whether specific types of income support programs (e.g., unemployment benefits and welfare) reduce the negative impacts of job loss on middle-aged women’s mental health in the United States. Two samples of women previously employed before their mental health assessments in their 40s and 50s were selected from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79). We conducted regression analysis to predict their mental health scores using employment and income support program status. The model also controlled for baseline health before job loss, socioeconomic status, and demographic and family life characteristics. Compared to their continuously employed counterparts, 50 + women who had job loss without unemployment benefits had significantly worse mental health. However, those receiving unemployment benefits did not have significantly worse mental health. Unemployment benefits’ ameliorating effect was not found in the 40 + sample; and welfare programs did not have similar mental health effects. Our findings suggest that certain types of income support policies are beneficial to the mental health of certain cohorts of middle-aged women. For different groups of women, additional and alternative measures are needed to reduce the mental health damage of job loss.
Laser cleaning, as a new type of cleaning technology, has the advantages of environment-friendliness, better selectivity, better controllability and higher efficiency…
Laser cleaning, as a new type of cleaning technology, has the advantages of environment-friendliness, better selectivity, better controllability and higher efficiency compared to traditional chemical cleaning or grinding. This paper aims to use ultra-fast surface laser cleaning equipment built in laboratory to study the influence of different energy density (7.6, 11.5 and 15.3 J/cm2) on corrosion resistance of the aluminum alloy A7N01P-T4, a high-speed train body material.
SEM, white light interferometer, EDS and XPS were used to analyze the surface morphology, roughness, element content and oxide layer composition of aluminum alloy before and after cleaning. The corrosion resistance was studied by electrochemical experiments and exfoliation corrosion experiments.
The results showed that new oxide scale was formed on the surface after laser cleaning. The changes of surface roughness and chemical composition of oxide scale made a significant influence on corrosion behaviors. Better corrosion resistance was obtained with the energy density increased, and at the energy density of 11.5 J/cm2, aluminum alloy exhibited the best corrosion resistance.
The paper only studies specific aluminum alloys and is not universal. Laser cleaning equipment is set up for the laboratory and has not yet been put into industrial production.
This paper indicated that ultra-fast laser processing was a new direction for the development of industrial equipment surface cleaning and carried out ultra-fast laser of aluminum alloy surface cleaning had certain research significance for its corrosion resistance.
Compared with the conventional cleaning methods such as air abrasives grinding or chemical cleaning, laser cleaning has advantages of environment-friendliness, better selectivity, better controllability and higher efficiency. Laser cleaning can not only protect the environment, but also improve cleaning efficiency.
Changes in the surface of aluminum alloys after ultra-fast surface laser treatment were found, and the mechanism of changes in aluminum alloy corrosion properties was clarified.
The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the shareholding of the largest shareholder and other large shareholders could exert a good stimulating effect within a…
The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the shareholding of the largest shareholder and other large shareholders could exert a good stimulating effect within a firm's corporate governance structure and what impact the balance of power among large shareholders could have on top management turnover.
This paper has investigated 787 firms publicly listed in the Shanghai Stock Exchange and checked the relation between power balance of firms' block shareholders and their top management turnover.
The paper's empirical results show that there is a U‐shaped relationship between the proportions of shareholding of a firm's largest shareholder and its top management turnover, that is, the controlling shareholder could impose either negative or positive effect for different types of equity ownership. We also find that the proportion of shares held by other block shareholders is significantly and positively related to the turnover of management and the monitoring effect of other large shareholders is strong. Furthermore, duality of chairman and CEO shows a significant negative effect on firms's top management turnover.
The paper usefully shows that under the institutional background of relatively weak legal protection for medium and small investors in China, centralized shareholding by large shareholders in listed firms, or the so‐called mechanism of power balance among block shareholders, has the ability to effectively supervise and restrain the corporate governance of a firm, replace ineffective managers and thus improve its whole management performance.