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Article

Da-Hai Xia and Jing-Li Luo

Corrosion is considered as one of the issues that threaten the safe operation of steam generator (SG) tubing. Some sulfur-related specie can cause corrosion degradation of…

Abstract

Purpose

Corrosion is considered as one of the issues that threaten the safe operation of steam generator (SG) tubing. Some sulfur-related specie can cause corrosion degradation of SG tubing. Sulfur-induced corrosion of SG alloys in high temperature and high-pressure water is one of the most complicated processes. The purpose of this study is to study the effect of reduced sulphur on passive film properties of steam generator (SG) tubing.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the effects of reduced sulfur on passive film properties of SG tubing were reviewed from the aspects of thermodynamic calculations and experimental.

Findings

Thermodynamic calculations are mainly presented by E-pH diagrams, volt equivalent diagrams and species distribution curves. The stability of sulphur species highly depends on temperature, solution pH, and electrochemical potential. Experimental data indicated that reduced sulfur species can interact with the passive film, which led to changes in film thickness, film structure, semiconductivity and pitting growth rate.

Originality/value

The state-of-the-art discussed in this paper gives basis for resolving engineering problems regarding with sulfur-induced corrosion.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 66 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article

Weishan Huang, Jing-Li Luo, Hani Henein and Josiah Jordan

This paper aims to evaluate the sulfide stress cracking (SSC) resistance of L80 casing steels with different alloying chemistries (e.g. Ti-B and Mn-Cr-Mo) by correlating…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the sulfide stress cracking (SSC) resistance of L80 casing steels with different alloying chemistries (e.g. Ti-B and Mn-Cr-Mo) by correlating the reduction in area ratio with the mechanical property, inclusion and carbide.

Design/methodology/approach

SSC tests were conducted in 5.0 Wt.% sodium chloride and 0.5 Wt.% acetic acid solution saturated with H2S using constant load tensile method. The microstructure and fracture morphology of the steel were observed using scanning electron microscope. The inclusion and carbide were identified by energy dispersive spectroscopy and auger electron microscope.

Findings

Among all the testing steels, electric resistance welding (ERW) L80-0.5Mo steel demonstrates the highest SSC resistance because of its appropriate mechanical properties, uniform microstructure and low inclusion content. The SSC resistance of L80 steels generally decreases with the rising yield strength. The fracture mode of steel with low SSC resistance is jointly dominated by transgranular and intergranular cracking, whereas that with high SSC resistance is mainly transgranular cracking. SSC is more sensitive to inclusions than carbides because the cracks are easier to be initiated from the elongated inclusions and oversized oxide inclusions, especially the inclusion clusters. Unlike the elongated carbide, globular carbide in the steel can reduce the negative effect on the SSC resistance. Especially, a uniform microstructure with fine globular carbides favors a significant improvement in SSC resistance through precluding the cracking propagation.

Originality/value

The paper provides the new insights into the improvement in SSC resistance of L80 casing steel for its application in H2S environment through optimizing its alloying compositions and microstructure.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 66 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article

Victor Zitian Chen, Jing Li and Daniel M. Shapiro

The purpose of this study is to extend the classic country-specific advantage (CSA) – firm-specific advantage (FSA) framework by integrating an institution-based view of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to extend the classic country-specific advantage (CSA) – firm-specific advantage (FSA) framework by integrating an institution-based view of CSAs into the discussion of FSAs. In his classic CSA – FSA framework, Rugman suggests that successful multi-national enterprises (MNEs) are often built on the interaction between strong FSAs and strong CSAs at home. In the case of emerging market multi-nationals (EMNEs), he argued that strong CSAs were of particular importance in allowing EMNEs to develop FSAs. In particular, we examine CSAs at the sub-national level.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors suggest that sub-national heterogeneity in market-supporting institutions is an important feature of emerging market economies, and that consideration of such heterogeneity contributes to our understanding of firm capabilities and overseas investment behavior of emerging market firms. The authors also identify explicitly the mechanisms through which sub-national institutions at home affect FSAs and, subsequently, the ability of emerging market firms’ entry into developed markets. Specifically, the authors argue that strong local institutions that support effective and well-functioning markets create the conditions that induce firms in that location to develop market-related capabilities in R & D and marketing, which, in turn, enable them to expand into developed countries.

Findings

Using a unique data set on overseas investment by Chinese firms and causal mediation analysis, the authors find strong evidence in support of the view that strong sub-national institutions help emerging market firms develop the capabilities to enter developed country markets.

Originality/value

This study extends the classic CSA–FSA framework by integrating an institution-based view of CSAs into the discussion of FSAs. In particular, the authors examine CSAs at the sub-national level.

Details

The Multinational Business Review, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

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Article

Jianping Peng, Guoying Zhang, Shaoling Zhang, Xin Dai and Jing Li

– The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of online advertising spending on automobile sales through both search and non-search advertising.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of online advertising spending on automobile sales through both search and non-search advertising.

Design/methodology/approach

Sales data of the top 52 vehicle models were collected in two consecutive years in China. The advertising spending data of both formats were collected from a leading consulting company and a major search engine company. Then several empirical models were proposed to evaluate the effects of online advertising on automobile sales. Two extended models were further investigated for search advertising.

Findings

The results revealed that both formats of online advertising have significantly positive effects on automobile sales. However, excessive spending on non-search advertising does not help sales and a moderate budget is preferred. On the other hand, spending on search advertising has no such constraint to improve the vehicle sales.

Practical implications

The empirical findings have proved the importance of online advertising to the automobile companies and thus can help companies improve their decision making in online advertising allocation strategies.

Originality/value

This study provides a better understanding of the relationship between online advertising spending and automobile sales, and helps business to define sophisticated online advertising strategies to improve sales performance.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 52 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Article

Jing Li

The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors that lead to the controversy within the existing empirical literature on the relationship between land tenure and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors that lead to the controversy within the existing empirical literature on the relationship between land tenure and agricultural investments in China.

Design/methodology/approach

This study conducts a meta-regression analysis (MRA) based on 265 samples from 29 selected studies. These studies are collected from different regions and populations; therefore, this study utilizes a random-effects meta-regression model to control between-study heterogeneity.

Findings

The empirical results show that the variable “land-related long-term investments” significantly affects the relationship between land tenure and agricultural investments. The variables: “ration land,” “land titling” and “land transfer rights” all have significant effects on this relationship, but at different levels. The study area (e.g. “western China,” “central/inland China,” “two regions contained”), “plot level,” “panel data,” “sample size,” “considered endogeneity” and “off-farm employment” variables all significantly influence the relationship. Additionally, the results show that the relationship is significantly affected by the survey time.

Practical implications

Policymakers should treat the existing research conclusions with caution and pay more attention to defining land tenure. The relationship between land tenure and agricultural investments also depends on regional resource availability. Therefore, land property rights policies should be region-specific in order to successfully encourage agricultural investments.

Originality/value

In this study, the author collectively examines existing empirical studies to investigate whether their inconsistent results are affected by research characteristics. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first study that analyzes land tenure and agricultural investments in China using MRA. Future research should refine the definition of land tenure, the selection of agricultural investment types, the research method and the method of data collection.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

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Article

Junli Yu, Shelagh M.R. Campbell, Jing Li and Zhou Zhang

The Chief Financial Officer (CFO), despite being a critical organization member responsible for ensuring quality of financial reporting, audit and compliance, is…

Abstract

Purpose

The Chief Financial Officer (CFO), despite being a critical organization member responsible for ensuring quality of financial reporting, audit and compliance, is under-researched. Grouped as a member of top management teams (TMS) in studies, factors influencing decision making in this group rely on static measures of characteristics without regard for dynamic and longitudinal influences of career trajectories and industry occupational group memberships. The relationship between the high-tech industry as a site of notable reported internal control (IC) weakness and influences on CFOs requires closer examination. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The study draws together the upper echelons theory and occupational communities (OCs) to explore the impact of shared values and behavioral norms from different sources on executive decision making. Internal and external sources of OC are proposed and their influence on activities with respect to corporate IC is tested. The sample of 1,573 firm/year observations includes high-tech firms listed on major US exchanges was developed using data from five distinct databases. Executives’ biographic information was manually collected.

Findings

Results indicate that senior financial executives belong not only to their firm and its culture but also to OCs that extend beyond the firm. Membership in professional credential granting occupational groups has less impact on effective IC than experience in the high-tech industry. In combination, multiple OCs show evidence of compound and counteracting effects on IC. The OC that arises in the high-tech industry makes a measurable positive difference in the quality of IC in sample firms, in contrast with the OC among credentialed accounting and financial professionals.

Research limitations/implications

This quantitative study of OC reveals the differential impact of different sources of OC and contributes to the literature on TMS a new framework for examining decision making. OC is typically studied through qualitative methods and, thus, potential exists to further explore the specific nature and dynamics of the OCs identified in this study.

Practical implications

The study highlights the role of broad affiliations and networks among senior financial executives which may have bearing on their ability to effectively manage IC. The role of these networks may also partially explain instances of CFO failure and thus dismissal. Knowledge of the role of OC may help boards of directors in the selection and promotion of senior financial officers of the firm.

Originality/value

The paper offers a different perspective on professional accounting expertise in one specific industry where incidence of IC weakness is high relative to other industries. Study results expand recent research on TMS to include sociological impacts of cohort groups. Despite generally weaker IC in the high-tech sector, this study demonstrates the value of exploring group membership within the industry as an important predictor of behavior. The result is a new perspective to CFO decision making which illustrates the relevance of OCs among upper echelons. The implications of findings for CFO recruitment and promotion are borne out in recent instances of senior financial executive failure in the sector.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

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Article

Ruth V. Aguilera, Ricardo Flores and Jin Uk Kim

The purpose of this paper is to critically assess the theoretical underpinnings and extant progress of the research on regional multi-national enterprises (MNEs) and offer…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to critically assess the theoretical underpinnings and extant progress of the research on regional multi-national enterprises (MNEs) and offer a blueprint for future research by re-conceptualizing how (regional) boundaries relate to the international diversification of MNEs.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper integrates key insights from the theory of the regional MNE and economic geography to re-orient the treatment of regional borders within international business (IB) literature.

Findings

The paper suggests that the (L) component within the ownership location and internalization (OLI) paradigm should be disaggregated into continuous “distance effects” and discrete “border effects”. Within this rubric, regional borders represent discrete border effects that generate discontinuities that are permeable, fluid and firm specific. Such reconceptualization opens up avenues for future research and more tightly integrates the research on regional MNEs with other research streams.

Research limitations/implications

IB scholars need to make concerted effort to think of regions as one among several parameters in studying the strategy and structure of MNEs. A stronger focus on internal processes and mechanisms elucidating the main drivers of MNEs strategies is needed.

Originality/value

The paper offers innovative ways in which future research can advance the study of how regions matter in the internationalization strategy of MNEs.

Details

The Multinational Business Review, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

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