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Article
Publication date: 25 November 2019

Jia Xu, Jing Yu Zhang, Jiahan Xu, Yuqi Chang, Feilong Shi, Zhanzhu Zhang and Huanxia Zhang

One of the intensively developed in recent years new materials are hybrid textiles modified with carbon nanotubes (CNT). In this paper, CNTs was modified by grafting…

Abstract

Purpose

One of the intensively developed in recent years new materials are hybrid textiles modified with carbon nanotubes (CNT). In this paper, CNTs was modified by grafting dimethyl phosphite and perfluorohexyl iodine. It was applied to the cotton to obtain the flame-retardant, water-repellent, ultraviolet-resistant and conductive multifunctional fabric.

Design/methodology/approach

The modified CNTs were loaded onto cotton fabric by impregnation and drying. The CNTs-multi was synthesized by grafted dimethyl phosphite and perfluorohexyl chain and applied to the cotton by dipping-drying method. The surface chemistry of functionalized CNTs was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The combustion properties were evaluated using a microscale combustion calorimeter, match test and TGA analysis. Surface hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of fabric surface was characterized by static contact angle, and the UV resistance of the fabric was represented by the UPF value.

Findings

Dimethyl phosphite and perfluorohexyl chain were grafted on the surface of CNTs successively. The quantity of each component on the surface of CNTs was calculated according to XPS results. According to miniature combustion calorimeter data, both the value of maximum heat release rate (PHRR) and total heat release (THR) of CNTs -multi/cotton was about 65% lower than that of untreated cotton fabric. The residue after combustion of CNTs -multi/ cotton in the match test was more compact. The electrical conductivity of multi/ cotton is 225.6 kΩ/□, which is better than that of untreated cotton fabric. The UPF value of CNTs-multi/cotton reached 121, which was indicated that the anti-ultraviolet performance of CNTs-multi was greatly improved.

Research limitations/implications

Modifying method to increase the functional component amuount on the CNTs surface still need to be explored, which could increase the hydrophobicity. How to further improve the functional effect and the general synthetic steps will be of great significance to the preparation of multifunctional modified cotton fabric.

Practical implications

This modifying method can be used in any of multifunctional textile preparation process. The UV-resistant and flame retardant cotton fabric was revealed as a sample for use in outdoor sports such as clothes and tents.

Originality/value

To meet the needs of multifunctional cotton fabric, the modification of CNTs with dimethyl phosphite and perfluorohexyl iodine has not been reported. The modified fabric has flame-retardant, UV-resistant conductive and conductive properties.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1986

Hou Cheng Huang and Jing Yu Zhang

We describe how to improve the accuracy of stress in the application of the hybrid finite element method. The idea is based on the fact that the assumed stress hybrid…

Abstract

We describe how to improve the accuracy of stress in the application of the hybrid finite element method. The idea is based on the fact that the assumed stress hybrid method is equivalent to both the principle of minimum complementary energy within the interior of each element and the principle of the minimum potential energy in the entire domain. It is known that when a good hybrid model is used for the displacement solution, the stress model must satisfy equilibrium within individual elements and be comparable with the boundary displacements. However, the compatibility in the elements is usually ignored and through variational operation it may be only approximately satisfied. So the stress model cannot approach a corresponding analytical stress field. In the present study, after nodal displacements are solved, we propose that a different stress model could be used to find the stress coefficients according to the principle of minimum complementary energy in each element in order to get an improved stress field.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2009

Yen Ming Zhang and Pak Tee Ng

Yi Jing is one of the most archaic works among the Chinese classics. Various schools of thought developed their philosophies from the philosophical perspectives in this…

Abstract

Purpose

Yi Jing is one of the most archaic works among the Chinese classics. Various schools of thought developed their philosophies from the philosophical perspectives in this book and its influence is wide ranging and far reaching. This paper attempts to show how leaders can approach the Yi Jing beneficially by identifying the principles, values and virtues in each of the 64 scenarios, deriving insights about change and leadership. It also aims to show how the Yi Jing compares with Western management literature.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides an analysis of Qian Gua of Yi Jing as an example of how leaders can draw insights from Yi Jing about change and leadership.

Findings

Qian Gua, which is the first scenario in the Yi Jing, offers us powerful insights about change and leadership by offering: a framework of understanding change and human enterprises, considering the aspects of beginning, process, benefit and sustainability; a framework to understand the leadership development process; and leadership principles of conscientious self‐cultivation, transformational leadership through virtues and riding the tides of change.

Practical implications

A change and leadership model inspired by the Yi Jing should interest business leaders both in the east and the west, and help Westerners gain success in doing business in China or collaborating with the Chinese on a joint venture.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to draw insights about change and leadership through an analysis of Qian Gua of Yi Jing.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2021

Yu Qin, Jing Qin and Chengwei Liu

This study aims to examine the evolution of spatial–temporal patterns in China’s hotel industry from 1978 to 2018.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the evolution of spatial–temporal patterns in China’s hotel industry from 1978 to 2018.

Design/methodology/approach

A database comprising over 140,000 hotels with more than 30 rooms was created. The exploratory spatial–temporal data analysis (ESTDA) method, based on space–time cube model, was used to explore and visualize the spatial–temporal pattern of hotels.

Findings

The Chinese hotel industry can be divided into two development stages, namely, a large hotel-dominant stage before 2000 and a small–medium-sized hotel-dominant stage after 2000. China’s prefecture-level cities were clustered into four tiers. The higher the tier, the earlier the city will initiate hotel development. The Chinese hotel industry has four continuous hotspots (the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, Bohai Rim and Sichuan and Chongqing) and some temporary hotspots.

Research limitations/implications

This study lacks quantitative investigation, which could show the underlying mechanism of the evolution of the Chinese hotel industry.

Originality/value

This study is the first to investigate China’s hotel evolution over 40 years by applying big data and the ESTDA method. The systematic and evolutionary exploration will enable hotel researchers to understand the spatial–temporal nature of hotel distribution better. Introducing the ESTDA method into tourism and hotel research also provides an additional tool to researchers. Hotel investors and operators, city and tourism planners and market regulators can learn from the evolution of location patterns to make better where and when decisions.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2020

Chang Lu, Bo Yu, Jing Zhang and Dan Xu

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between two types of open innovation (OI) strategies (OI breadth and depth) and innovation performance of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between two types of open innovation (OI) strategies (OI breadth and depth) and innovation performance of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in China. The study examines how firms’ absorptive capacity and government institutional support affect these relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data from 236 manufacturing SMEs in China were used to test the proposed model using hierarchical regression analysis.

Findings

The results show that both OI breadth and depth are positively related to innovation performance of SMEs. Moreover, this study finds that realized absorptive capacity serves as a mediator in the relationships between OI breadth and depth and innovation performance. The potential absorptive capacity and government institutional support moderate the relationship between OI breadth and innovation performance.

Originality/value

The effectiveness of OI strategies is significantly different among SMEs. One possible explanation is that SMEs adopt different types of OI strategies. Another is that a firm’s absorptive capacity and government institutional support may influence the effectiveness of OI. This study integrates these two possible reasons by investigating the effect of the interplay between different OI strategies, absorptive capacity and government institutional support on SMEs’ innovation performance. This study enriches the research on the relationships between OI strategies and innovation performance of SMEs in the Chinese context.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Article
Publication date: 14 December 2018

De-gan Zhang, Ya-meng Tang, Yu-ya Cui, Jing-xin Gao, Xiao-huan Liu and Ting Zhang

The communication link in the engineering of Internet of Vehicle (IOV) is more frequent than the communication link in the Mobile ad hoc Network (MANET). Therefore, the…

Abstract

Purpose

The communication link in the engineering of Internet of Vehicle (IOV) is more frequent than the communication link in the Mobile ad hoc Network (MANET). Therefore, the highly dynamic network routing reliability problem is a research hotspot to be solved.

Design/methodology/approach

The graph theory is used to model the MANET communication diagram on the highway and propose a new reliable routing method for internet of vehicles based on graph theory.

Findings

The expanded graph theory can help capture the evolution characteristics of the network topology and predetermine the reliable route to promote quality of service (QoS) in the routing process. The program can find the most reliable route from source to the destination from the MANET graph theory.

Originality/value

The good performance of the proposed method is verified and compared with the related algorithms of the literature.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2021

Ru-Jing Hou, Sheng-Hao Han, Yu-Dong Zhang, Chu-Bing Zhang and Kun Wang

The biggest obstacle to the sustainable development of online brand communities is social loafing. Based on 3M Hierarchical Model of Personality, this paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

The biggest obstacle to the sustainable development of online brand communities is social loafing. Based on 3M Hierarchical Model of Personality, this paper aims to discuss the influence of the Big Five on social loafing in online brand communities, and consider the mediating role of dehumanization from the perspective of moral disengagement theory, so as to alleviate social loafing and promote the sustainable development of online brand communities.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected utilizing the online self-report questionnaires. Community members of mobile phone brands represented by HUAWEI and Xiaomi completed the questionnaire sets. Based on the responses of 214 participants, a structural equation modeling was applied to examine the relationship between Big Five on social loafing in online brand communities. Later, bootstrap analysis was used to further explore the indirect effect of dehumanization.

Findings

Only two personality traits, neuroticism and extroversion, have direct effect on social loafing, while agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness not. However, all the Big Five personality traits can indirectly influence social loafing through dehumanization.

Originality/value

This study introduces the concept of social loafing into online brand communities, and analyzes social loafing from the unique research perspective of moral disengagement theory, which can not only contribute to the development of moral disengagement theory and social loafing theory but also provide guiding points for relieving social loafing in online brand communities.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2019

Yi-Ming Wei, Qiao-Mei Liang, Gang Wu and Hua Liao

Abstract

Details

Energy Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-294-2

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2019

Junli Yu, Shelagh M.R. Campbell, Jing Li and Zhou Zhang

The Chief Financial Officer (CFO), despite being a critical organization member responsible for ensuring quality of financial reporting, audit and compliance, is…

Abstract

Purpose

The Chief Financial Officer (CFO), despite being a critical organization member responsible for ensuring quality of financial reporting, audit and compliance, is under-researched. Grouped as a member of top management teams (TMS) in studies, factors influencing decision making in this group rely on static measures of characteristics without regard for dynamic and longitudinal influences of career trajectories and industry occupational group memberships. The relationship between the high-tech industry as a site of notable reported internal control (IC) weakness and influences on CFOs requires closer examination. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The study draws together the upper echelons theory and occupational communities (OCs) to explore the impact of shared values and behavioral norms from different sources on executive decision making. Internal and external sources of OC are proposed and their influence on activities with respect to corporate IC is tested. The sample of 1,573 firm/year observations includes high-tech firms listed on major US exchanges was developed using data from five distinct databases. Executives’ biographic information was manually collected.

Findings

Results indicate that senior financial executives belong not only to their firm and its culture but also to OCs that extend beyond the firm. Membership in professional credential granting occupational groups has less impact on effective IC than experience in the high-tech industry. In combination, multiple OCs show evidence of compound and counteracting effects on IC. The OC that arises in the high-tech industry makes a measurable positive difference in the quality of IC in sample firms, in contrast with the OC among credentialed accounting and financial professionals.

Research limitations/implications

This quantitative study of OC reveals the differential impact of different sources of OC and contributes to the literature on TMS a new framework for examining decision making. OC is typically studied through qualitative methods and, thus, potential exists to further explore the specific nature and dynamics of the OCs identified in this study.

Practical implications

The study highlights the role of broad affiliations and networks among senior financial executives which may have bearing on their ability to effectively manage IC. The role of these networks may also partially explain instances of CFO failure and thus dismissal. Knowledge of the role of OC may help boards of directors in the selection and promotion of senior financial officers of the firm.

Originality/value

The paper offers a different perspective on professional accounting expertise in one specific industry where incidence of IC weakness is high relative to other industries. Study results expand recent research on TMS to include sociological impacts of cohort groups. Despite generally weaker IC in the high-tech sector, this study demonstrates the value of exploring group membership within the industry as an important predictor of behavior. The result is a new perspective to CFO decision making which illustrates the relevance of OCs among upper echelons. The implications of findings for CFO recruitment and promotion are borne out in recent instances of senior financial executive failure in the sector.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 6 December 2017

Ningzi Li and Qi Song

The goal of this chapter is to respond to the theoretical inquiries by scholars who are interested in how the public–private partnership (PPP) models adapt to China’s…

Abstract

The goal of this chapter is to respond to the theoretical inquiries by scholars who are interested in how the public–private partnership (PPP) models adapt to China’s context where political power dictates economic strategies. We also want to provide suggestions to policy designers who aim to promote a sustainable investment environment for domestic and international investors. We review the literature that explains the upside and downside of PPP projects in contemporary China. (1) We classify the trajectory of PPP evolution into four phases, i.e., emergence, growth, recession and revival. (2) We note that private companies take a disadvantageous position in the partnership compared with governments and state-owned enterprises because of a lack of specialized legislation, unequal competition between private companies and state-owned enterprises and the opposition from the civic society. (3) We identify political risks as the most influential risks. Political risks also lead to the misallocation of other risks between public and private parties that contributes to the high failure rate of China’s PPP projects. Based on these findings, we recommend governments to draft specialized legislation, stabilize the political environment and provide favourable subsidies to local governments to limit the risks involved in PPP projects. We also advise private enterprises and state-owned enterprises to focus on negotiating over task and risk division with governments when they make decisions to participate in PPP projects. This full review of studies on PPP development in China provides reliable recommendations to scholars, governments and enterprises.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Public–Private Partnerships in Developing and Emerging Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-494-1

Keywords

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