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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2001

Jim Kempton, Simon Nichol, Chimray Anumba and John Dickens

Deals with surveyor variability, in terms of identifying defects, when undertaking surveys of residential properties. It is based on a sample of 38 surveyors who took part…

Abstract

Deals with surveyor variability, in terms of identifying defects, when undertaking surveys of residential properties. It is based on a sample of 38 surveyors who took part in a large‐scale house condition survey (LSHCS). Seeks to quantify the extent of the variability of surveyors in LSHCS, and proposes methods to try to reduce the incidence of variability. Discusses not only the variability of surveyors in identifying defects to building elements, but also their perceptions of lifetimes for building elements. Concludes that the accuracy of data collection (i.e. the process of surveying a dwelling) is paramount if the information derived from the data is to be of value to the parties described. Also concludes that a mechanism for assessing individual surveyor’s variable tendencies needs to be developed to try to reduce the impact of variability at the survey data analysis stage.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2002

Jim Kempton, Amir Alani and Keith Chapman

Surveyor variability has a significant impact on the accuracy and reliability of house condition surveys. Reports on one particular cognitive bias that surveyors may use…

Abstract

Surveyor variability has a significant impact on the accuracy and reliability of house condition surveys. Reports on one particular cognitive bias that surveyors may use when undertaking house condition surveys – the confirmation bias. Two experiments are conducted to investigate the confirmation bias. The experiments seem to indicate that the confirmation bias does have the potential to have an impact on condition survey decision making and therefore to contribute to surveyor variability. Methods of dealing with the bias are discussed; particularly the potential application of expert systems alongside hand‐held data‐capture devices.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2002

Jim Kempton, Amir Alani and Keith Chapman

The importance of survey data accuracy is paramount if school maintenance programs are to be a true reflection of the maintenance needs of that school. Previous research…

Abstract

The importance of survey data accuracy is paramount if school maintenance programs are to be a true reflection of the maintenance needs of that school. Previous research has identified the issue of surveyor variability, i.e. the situation where two or more surveyors, surveying the same building, arrive at very different survey decisions. The research presented in this paper reports on social judgement theory – a model of a surveyor’s judgements where the varying values of surveyors, in terms of the “importance” they give to building elements, can be elicited by using the regression formula. The results of the research can be used to normalise survey data in an attempt to make them more truly reflect the actual condition of a school. The results can also be used to assess training requirements for individual surveyors.

Details

Facilities, vol. 20 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2010

Jim Kempton

The UK Housing Corporation announced that it expected a minimum of 25 per cent of registered social landlord (RSL) new build housing to use modern methods of construction…

Abstract

Purpose

The UK Housing Corporation announced that it expected a minimum of 25 per cent of registered social landlord (RSL) new build housing to use modern methods of construction (MMC). This resulted in higher numbers of MMC dwellings becoming the responsibility of asset management departments who then have the task of planning and executing maintenance plans for the stock. This paper seeks to determine asset managers' views on the incorporation of MMC into RSL housing portfolios and its implications for long‐term maintenance.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was developed from both the literature and a previous qualitatively based study. The questionnaire sought to solicit the opinions of asset managers on the use of MMC and long‐term maintenance

Findings

From 130 distributed survey forms a response rate of 66 per cent was achieved (n=86). The responses to the questionnaire indicate a generally negative view towards MMC and its future maintenance viability.

Practical implications

The research should be of interest to a broad range of people, including asset managers and surveyors, housing developers, and all those involved in the MMC supply chain.

Originality/value

Little work has been located on the subject of MMC and its specific impacts on RSL asset management operations. This paper fills some of the gaps.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2004

Jim Kempton

The UK government has introduced condition standards for housing known as the “Decent Homes Standard” (DHS). The DHS prescribes several key indicators – termed “criteria”…

Abstract

The UK government has introduced condition standards for housing known as the “Decent Homes Standard” (DHS). The DHS prescribes several key indicators – termed “criteria” – for showing that a dwelling is up to a minimum standard of repair and that it meets a minimum energy efficiency level. The DHS requires that all English social housing meet these criteria by 2010. The social housing sector is currently trying to implement maintenance programmes to ensure that the DHS is met. A range of strategic problems have arisen, particularly in terms of the finance available to undertake necessary works to dwellings, and human resources – both in terms of contractor availability and in‐house resources such as contract administrators and surveyors. However, the main starting point for implementing a strategy to meet the DHS is stock condition data. This paper describes issues with the accuracy and consistency of surveyors' survey judgements and their potential impact on planning for the DHS.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2003

Jim Kempton, Amir Alani and Keith Chapman

Surveyor variability has been previously identified as a barrier to the consistency and usability of house condition survey data. This paper explores the use of social…

Abstract

Surveyor variability has been previously identified as a barrier to the consistency and usability of house condition survey data. This paper explores the use of social judgement theory (SJT) as a potential method to account for, and reduce the impact of, surveyor variability. The study followed the principles of SJT first proposed by Egon Brunswik. The results of the study indicate that the SJT method does have the potential to aid understanding of the survey judgement policy of individual surveyors in terms of the importance they give to building elements and the underlying focus, or theme, of a survey. Knowledge of this policy could be utilised in house condition surveys by recalibration of survey results to take account of a surveyor’s policy. In addition, training requirements for individual surveyors could be identified.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2008

Jim Kempton

The purpose of this paper is to define mixed tenure estates as comprising any mix of social housing tenants with: private renting tenants (who therefore have private…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to define mixed tenure estates as comprising any mix of social housing tenants with: private renting tenants (who therefore have private landlords); shared owners (i.e. those who buy a part share in their home, the remaining share being typically retained by a social landlord); owner occupiers (bought outright, or those paying a mortgage on the whole value of the property).

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review and interviews with Registered Social Landlord (RSL) personnel are used to inform the discussion contained in this paper. The term “Asset Management” is used to describe the management of estates, including maintenance, repair and other physical investment. Does mixed tenure really have different asset management needs from mono tenure estates? The research methodology is based on a case study of a social housing provider, supported by semi‐structured interviews.

Findings

The main conclusion of this paper is that, along with a number of other issues, inter‐working at the case study RSL needs to be improved if mixed tenure estates are to succeed.

Originality/value

Little work has been undertaken in this specific area, and the research should be of interest to a wide audience including social housing developers, urban researchers and central and local government.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2009

Jim Kempton and Paul Syms

The purpose of this paper is to present the current drive for 3 million new homes by 2020. The delivery of this number of homes is a challenge for the house building…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the current drive for 3 million new homes by 2020. The delivery of this number of homes is a challenge for the house building industry and its associated stakeholders such as local authorities, registered social landlords (RSLs) and others. One mechanism proposed to ensure delivery is the use of modern methods of construction (MMC). There are, however, several problems with this premise including the legacy of non‐traditional housing formats employed in the past, demand side suspicion of MMC, and a lack of capacity on the supply side. The paper concentrates on the implications of MMC in the RSL sector – particularly the potential impacts of MMC on asset management (long‐term maintenance) of RSL housing stock.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review and interviews with key RSL personnel are used to inform the discussion contained in this paper.

Findings

Seven overall themes emerged from the research, pointing to the main issues that need to be addressed if MMC housing is to be successfully employed in the RSL sector, while also ensuring that asset management is able to carry out its long term maintenance programmes in an effective and efficient manner.

Originality/value

Little previous research has been located on the subject of MMC and its specific impacts on RSL asset management operations. The research should therefore be of interest to a broad range of people, including asset managers and surveyors, developers, planners, and local, regional and national policy makers.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

Jim Kempton

Construction, demolition, refurbishment and material supply processes are responsible for a significant amount of waste; whilst estimates vary, the UK Government uses the…

Abstract

Purpose

Construction, demolition, refurbishment and material supply processes are responsible for a significant amount of waste; whilst estimates vary, the UK Government uses the figure of 70 million tonnes. The construction industry accounts for some 17 per cent of the total waste produced in the UK. How much of this is produced by refurbishment activities in the registered social landlord (RSL) sector is unknown, but there is little doubt that refurbishing housing offers opportunities for significant waste generation. RSL housing is maintained and refurbished by a number of triggers when a dwelling is left vacant after a tenant departs. Such a property is known as a “Void”. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the type of maintenance works undertaken to properties in the RSL sector and consider the potential for the application of lean thinking to those maintenance processes.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review and interviews with RSL maintenance personnel are used to inform the discussion contained in this paper.

Findings

The main conclusion from this paper is that properties located in estates and built post‐1980 are those most likely to benefit from lean principles.

Originality/value

The RSL sector is changing from pseudo local government concerns to “social businesses”; therefore, the opportunity to apply lessons learned in other business sectors to the maintenance of RSLs' main assets (i.e. their properties) should be of interest to the sector as a whole.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2014

Jim Kempton

Households account for 27 per cent of the UK's total CO2 emissions therefore addressing housing energy efficiency has become a priority. Low-zero carbon technologies…

Abstract

Purpose

Households account for 27 per cent of the UK's total CO2 emissions therefore addressing housing energy efficiency has become a priority. Low-zero carbon technologies (LZCTs) for both new-build and the existing housing stock are one mechanism to reduce CO2. A gap in previous research into the subject was identified – the ongoing maintenance or “Asset Management” of LZCTs. This is important, inefficient or ineffective Asset Management may have a negative impact on the sustainability of energy efficient housing stock from a number of perspectives, including physical, social and economic. This paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The research presents a sector based study of the English social housing sector with seven individual organisations (known as “Registered Social Landlords”) represented by senior Asset Management practitioners, providing the units of analysis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to evaluate the past, current and future ability of the sector to successfully maintain LZCTs. The interviews were coded and a theme/sub-theme building process undertaken.

Findings

The interview analysis yielded three main themes (Asset Management Planning, Maintenance Skills and Occupier Impacts) and 12 sub-themes. Some of these confirmed findings from the literature review but others had not been previously located including inter-departmental conflicts and occupiers taking responsibility for maintenance.

Originality/value

A paucity of previous work specifically relating to Asset Management and LZCTs in the social housing sector was found. The findings should therefore be of interest to a wide range of stakeholders including registered providers, asset managers, surveyors, developers and policy makers.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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