Search results

1 – 10 of 40
Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

Jill Kickul and Lisa K. Gundry

Implications for opportunity identification, alliance formation, and strategic orientation of Internet entrepreneurs are presented as preliminary steps toward a new…

Abstract

Implications for opportunity identification, alliance formation, and strategic orientation of Internet entrepreneurs are presented as preliminary steps toward a new "netpreneurship" model of business formation.

Details

New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2574-8904

Article
Publication date: 22 June 2021

Jill Kickul, Mark D. Griffiths, Colleen C. Robb and Lisa Gundry

Given the previous research on the disparities of lending rates and their relationship with lending institutions for women-owned and minority-owned businesses, the study…

93

Abstract

Purpose

Given the previous research on the disparities of lending rates and their relationship with lending institutions for women-owned and minority-owned businesses, the study poses the research question: How much Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) funding was distributed to women-owned and minority-owned businesses in comparison to other firms? Additionally, as the purpose of the PPP funding was to assist small businesses in retaining their workforce, the authors pose a second research question: Of those who received PPP funding, how many jobs on average were retained? And importantly related to our first research question, are there differences across gender and race in the average number of jobs retained?

Design/methodology/approach

This is one of the first empirical studies with an initial sample size of 661,218 loans from July 2020 that examines whether the United States PPP had the intended impact to save jobs in small businesses and to examine any reported differences across gender and race in loans issued and jobs saved.

Findings

The authors find that significant differences exist between women- and men-owned businesses across all five loan categories, with male-owned firms receiving over 80% of PPP loans. However, women-owned firms saved more jobs on average across all but the largest loan category. Significant differences were also found between minority- and White-owned businesses with minority-owned businesses generally saving more jobs on average across most loan categories.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of this study pertains to certain missing data that were not reported by participants. While a participant may have included their gender, they may not have included their race. Therefore, the varying sets of data may not be a reflection of the same individuals. Additionally, the industries were not included in this analysis, which may shed light on the job creation differences across gender and race.

Practical implications

Many of the industries that have been significantly impacted have been the tourism, restaurant and hospitality sectors, and knowing “where the money was allocated” can assist policymakers in allocating additional funds to those businesses, especially those who did not receive funding in the initial first waves of PPP.

Originality/value

This is one of the first empirical studies that examine over 600,000 loans and found that women-owned firms saved more jobs across all loan categories except the largest loans. Significant differences were also found between minority- and White-owned businesses with minority-owned businesses generally saving more jobs on average across most loan categories.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Jill Kickul and Robert S. D'Intino

We examine the various components of entrepreneurial self-efficacy within the entrepreneurship literature from a measurement perspective. Two published entrepreneurial…

1956

Abstract

We examine the various components of entrepreneurial self-efficacy within the entrepreneurship literature from a measurement perspective. Two published entrepreneurial self-efficacy instruments are tested and compared. Additionally, we study how self-efficacy relates with many of the tasks and roles identified within the entrepreneurial new venture life-cycle. Our study suggests relationships between self-efficacy, perceived skills, and abilities to manage a new venture, and entrepreneurial intentions to start a new venture. We discuss relationships between entrepreneurship research and university teaching and make specific suggestions on how further work on improving measurement in entrepreneurship will benefit both research and teaching effectiveness.

Details

New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2574-8904

Article
Publication date: 28 October 2003

Jill Kickul and Matthew A. Liao‐Troth

It has been argued that the social and informational cues within the work environment need to be investigated to better understand and identify a nomological network…

Abstract

It has been argued that the social and informational cues within the work environment need to be investigated to better understand and identify a nomological network underlying the psychological contract construct. This study is one of the first to investigate how employees may use social and informational messages and cues in the work environment to formulate and place meaning behind their employee employer exchange relationship. We present a model that examines specific dimensions of employees’ psychological climates that may serve as a basis for understanding their contract with their organization. Three hundred and seventy employees from a variety of organizational settings completed measures of their climate (role characteristics, job characteristics, workgroup and social environment, leader behaviors, and organizational and subsystem attributes) as well as their perceptions of their psychological contract. The model and proposed relationships were tested through a series of hierarchical regression analyses. Results revealed that role characteristics were associated with the workload and clarity components of the contract while job characteristics were related to the work variety, work importance, and autonomy contract factors. Workgroup and social environment dimensions were related to the contract components of social interaction and work conditions and leader behaviors were associated with the feedback contract factor. Finally, organizational and subsystem attributes were linked to the compensation, benefits, security, advancement, development opportunities, fairness, and interpersonal factors of an employee’s psychological contract. Study contributions and limitations as well as directions for future research are discussed.

Details

American Journal of Business, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 24 November 2021

Paulami Mitra, Jill R. Kickul and Colleen Robb

Extant literature on entrepreneurship highlights the importance of the entrepreneurs' social network in mobilizing resources for their ventures. Over the last few years…

Abstract

Extant literature on entrepreneurship highlights the importance of the entrepreneurs' social network in mobilizing resources for their ventures. Over the last few years, entrepreneurial crowdfunding opportunities have become a subject of growing research interest as it acts as a tool to mobilize financial resources. However, many of these studies are limited within the scope of new ventures, creative industries, and commercial entrepreneurship. In this study, we examine crowdfunding within the context of social entrepreneurship in order to gain a deeper understanding of the motivation and the characteristics of the pool of individuals that contribute to social entrepreneurial crowdfunding. Data for this study have been collected from four cases of social entrepreneurial crowdfunding campaigns. The campaigners, who raised the funds in France for social ventures based in India, shared their knowledge of 157 individuals that contributed to their crowdfunding campaign. The findings inform that crowdfunders mainly originate from the crowdfunding campaigner's helper network, such as family, friends, and colleagues. A small percentage were also acquaintances and strangers. This network of individuals was motivated to support the campaigner achieve her/his goal or was attracted to the social cause that triggered them in creating a social impact. Moreover, the crowdfunders were generally open-minded and well-traveled individuals accustomed to participating in social and voluntary activities. Our study reveals that some members of the helper network are likely to disappoint by not supporting the crowdfunding campaign, thus emphasizing a twist to the existing literature on entrepreneurship. This has practical implications that prompt social entrepreneurs to exercise their social capital, networking skills, and communication strategies to attract and expand their community of helpers in order to trigger individuals from both their helper network as well as individuals outside their current network toward crowdfunding.

Details

Social Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-790-6

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2574-8904

Book part
Publication date: 24 November 2021

Michelle Ouimette, Imran Chowdhury and Jill R. Kickul

Nonprofit organizations (NPOs) increasingly view social entrepreneurship as means to expand their mission scope while simultaneously diversifying revenue streams and…

Abstract

Nonprofit organizations (NPOs) increasingly view social entrepreneurship as means to expand their mission scope while simultaneously diversifying revenue streams and strengthening financial foundations. However, the pursuit of social entrepreneurial ventures often incites a tug-of-war phenomenon between the deep-rooted social welfare logic of the parent NPO and a newly evolving commercial logic at the subsidiary social enterprise (SSE). The present study seeks to understand how NPOs navigate such logic conflicts as they strive to become more entrepreneurial. Based upon case studies of two NPOs, we found divergence in organizational identity, legitimacy, and mission/vision between parent nonprofits and their SSEs as they struggled with a defining question: Are we a program or are we a business? Our research indicates that organizations reconcile such cognitive dissonance through four distinct processes: connecting, variegating, separating, and augmenting social welfare and commercial logic spheres. We, thus, contribute to the social entrepreneurship and nonprofit management literatures by illustrating ways in which noncommercial organizations may address issues of logic divergence when engaging in revenue-generating commercial activities.

Article
Publication date: 26 October 2010

Jill Kickul, Mark Griffiths and Sophie Bacq

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how extending social innovation and impact learning to the field was accomplished.

1503

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how extending social innovation and impact learning to the field was accomplished.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper discusses how experiential learning can be adapted to social entrepreneurship education and how to structure the course and deliverables. It highlights the importance of students' selection and preparation.

Findings

The paper shares some students' reflections on their fieldwork and how they dealt with new ideas. It also provides three central lessons – “go real”, “go deep”, “get feedback” – that were learned through the experience.

Research limitations/implications

Since information from only one course offering has been reported, a simple generalization should be made cautiously. For this reason, the transferability of this experiential learning course to other regions of the world is discussed and recommendations are offered for educators who want to engage in a successful “boundary‐less classroom.”

Originality/value

Initial evidence is provided that the success of experiential learning in social innovation and impact can be guaranteed by a number of elements, including students' preparation to assist them as they confront challenges found in the field experience. Experiential learning would not be transferable without deep intercultural understanding and a well‐chosen selection of social enterprises and social entrepreneurs with whom to collaborate.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2004

Margaret Posig and Jill Kickul

A model integrating work‐role expectations of employees, work‐family conflict, family‐work conflict, and a component of burnout was proposed and empirically tested on 163…

7174

Abstract

A model integrating work‐role expectations of employees, work‐family conflict, family‐work conflict, and a component of burnout was proposed and empirically tested on 163 employees, who were also part of dual‐earner couples. Gender differences were found in the proposed model. For males, work‐family conflict mediated the relationship between work‐role expectations and emotional exhaustion. Although the same indirect relationship was found for females, a direct relationship also existed between work‐role expectations and emotional exhaustion. Additionally, for females, family‐work conflict was found to be a key contributor to work‐family conflict and emotional exhaustion. Managerial implications and future research directions are discussed.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 19 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 May 2008

Jill Kickul, Fiona Wilson, Deborah Marlino and Saulo D. Barbosa

The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons behind the significant gender gaps observed in entrepreneurial interest among adolescents. Specifically, the authors…

2744

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons behind the significant gender gaps observed in entrepreneurial interest among adolescents. Specifically, the authors aim to test multiple models that analyze direct and indirect relationships between work and leadership experience, presence of a parental role model, self‐efficacy, and interest by teens in becoming entrepreneurs.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of over 5,000 middle and high school students participated in the larger study from which the data were drawn. Participants completed measures of entrepreneurial self‐efficacy, entrepreneurial intentions, work and leadership experience, and parental entrepreneurial role model. The authors analyzed the data using structural equation modeling.

Findings

While the study confirmed previous empirical findings regarding the antecedents of entrepreneurial self‐efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions, significant differences across gender emerged. First, while boys and girls hold jobs outside of school in comparable numbers, this work experience is much more powerful in generating self‐efficacy among boys. Additionally, the findings indicated that self‐efficacy seemed to have a stronger effect on entrepreneurial interest for girls than for boys, and that having an entrepreneurial mother or father had a significant and positive effect on girls' (but not boys') levels of the entrepreneurial interest.

Research limitations/implications

Common method variance and other typical limitations of cross‐sectional self‐report surveys are acknowledged. Future research should use longitudinal and multi‐method approaches to overcome such limitations.

Practical implications

Findings suggest that feeling like they are able to succeed as entrepreneurs might count more for girls than for boys when considering career options, and demonstrate the value of entrepreneurial role models for young girls, especially those who already have the confidence and perceived skills to launch their own future ventures.

Originality/value

The paper documents research that represents one of the few large‐scale studies of US teens examining entrepreneurial intentions and antecedents across gender.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

1 – 10 of 40