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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2018

Jill A. Power

Last spring, EBSCO Information Services conducted a usability study with several students with visual impairments. The goal was to understand how these students conduct…

Abstract

Purpose

Last spring, EBSCO Information Services conducted a usability study with several students with visual impairments. The goal was to understand how these students conduct research and identify areas for improvement of EBSCO Discovery Service™ such that it would meet the needs of all potential users. EBSCO Discovery Service™ provides users with means of accessing all of an institution’s internal (library) and external (database vendors) information resources through a single search. The purpose of this paper is to outline the findings of this research and the applicability to the design of any online resource.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the Bentley University’s user experience lab to facilitate the study and the Carroll Center for the Blind in Newton, Massachusetts, for recruitment of college students, EBSCO solicited feedback on how students conduct research on the Web in general, as well as their experience using EBSCO’s discovery service. The study involved a structured interview with eight visually impaired students from the Boston area, who had recently been enrolled in a college course. The students were also asked to complete certain tasks using the discovery service and report out as they completed each activity.

Findings

The findings demonstrated that for the most part, students with visual impairments engaged in research on the Web and within the discovery service in a similar manner to sighted students. They used the same standard search sites, expected the same layout conventions for results’ lists and filters and wanted easily savable full-text documents. Main differences involved their ability to navigate in a similar way to sighted users. Elements that one could skip over quickly as a sighted user were more of a hindrance to those relying on a screen reader. Additionally, improved descriptions for graphics, functions and form fields were noted as opportunities for improvement. For those with low vision, using screen magnifiers, modal boxes and hover features or other unexpected changes on the site proved to be challenging.

Research limitations/implications

This study focused only on students with visual disabilities. There are many other print disabilities that were not explored such as color blindness, cognitive disabilities or learning disabilities. All the students were in their 20s and had experience conducting research and using library or research-related search sites. Many of the findings highlighted areas of improvement that would benefit all students.

Originality/value

A study on students with visual disabilities using assistive technologies as they completed research tasks on a discovery system has not been studied before. Guidelines and audits do not provide a complete picture as to whether a website is fully accessible. It is only by working with actual users that insight into what it means to create a truly accessible experience can be gained.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 46 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Michael Weedall

Organizational innovation is a difficult process. Most innovations fail. If an innovation fails there is a high probability the organization will be fractured. It is easy…

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1243

Abstract

Organizational innovation is a difficult process. Most innovations fail. If an innovation fails there is a high probability the organization will be fractured. It is easy to break apart an organization. It is much more difficult to build it back up. This is a case study of an innovation in a branch of a large private English language school in Japan. The head teacher decided to improve a portion of the educational system using a fidelity approach. She felt the innovation was entirely technical. Consequently, she thought she could achieve her objectives without the help of the teachers. Her approach failed and caused deep fractures in the branch’s social and work systems. This paper outlines the innovation plan. It shows why it failed, and suggests strategies the head teacher could have used to increase the likelihood of a positive outcome.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 12 December 2016

Jill Manthorpe, Stephen Martineau, Caroline Norrie and Martin Stevens

Opinion is divided on whether a new power of entry should be introduced for social workers in cases where individuals seem to be hindering safeguarding enquiries for…

Abstract

Purpose

Opinion is divided on whether a new power of entry should be introduced for social workers in cases where individuals seem to be hindering safeguarding enquiries for community-dwelling adults at risk in England who have decision-making capacity. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the prevalence and circumstances of situations where access to an adult at risk is denied or difficult and what helps those in practice. The study consists of a literature review, a survey of adult safeguarding managers and interviews with social care staff in three case studies of local authorities. As part of the contextual literature review, during 2014 the authors located parliamentary debates on the subject and this paper reports on their analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

Following approaches were used in historical research, documentary analysis was carried out on transcripts of parliamentary debates available online from Hansard, supplemented by other materials that were referenced in speeches and set in the theoretical context of the representations of social problems.

Findings

The authors describe the content of debates on the risks and benefits of a new right to access for social workers and the role of parliamentary champions who determinedly pursued this policy, putting forward three unsuccessful amendments in efforts to insert such a new power into the Care Act 2014.

Research limitations/implications

There are limits to a focus on parliamentary reports and the limits of Hansard reporting are small but need to be acknowledged. However, adult safeguarding research has surprisingly not undertaken substantial analyses of political rhetoric despite the public theatre of the debate and the importance of legislative initiatives and monitoring.

Originality/value

This paper adds to the history of adult safeguarding in England. It also offers insight into politicians’ views on what is known/unknown about the prevalence and circumstances of the problems with gaining access to adults with capacity where there are safeguarding concerns and politicians’ views on the merits or hazards of a power of access.

Details

The Journal of Adult Protection, vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1466-8203

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2017

Martin Stevens, Stephen Martineau, Jill Manthorpe and Caroline Norrie

The purpose of this paper is to explore debates about the powers social workers may need to undertake safeguarding enquiries where access to the adult is denied.

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1143

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore debates about the powers social workers may need to undertake safeguarding enquiries where access to the adult is denied.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes as a starting point a scoping review of the literature undertaken as part of a study exploring social work responses to situations where they are prevented from speaking to an adult at risk by a third party.

Findings

A power of entry might be one solution to situations where social workers are prevented from accessing an adult at risk. The paper focuses on the Scottish approach to legal powers in adult safeguarding, established by the Adult Support and Protection Act (Scotland) 2007 and draws out messages for adult safeguarding in England and elsewhere. The literature review identified that debates over the Scottish approach are underpinned by differing conceptualisations of vulnerability, autonomy and privacy, and the paper relates these conceptualisations to different theoretical stances.

Social implications

The paper concludes that the literature suggests that a more socially mediated rather than an essentialist understanding of the concepts of vulnerability, autonomy and privacy allows for more nuanced approaches to social work practice in respect of using powers of entry and intervention with adults at risk who have capacity to make decisions.

Originality/value

This paper provides a novel perspective on debates over how to overcome challenges to accessing adults at risk in adult safeguarding through an exploration of understandings of vulnerability, privacy and autonomy.

Details

The Journal of Adult Protection, vol. 19 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1466-8203

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Book part
Publication date: 16 March 2021

Nicola Headlam

As a network analyst, I am fascinated by social interactions. The ways in which people connect with one another and exercise power and authority by deploying different…

Abstract

As a network analyst, I am fascinated by social interactions. The ways in which people connect with one another and exercise power and authority by deploying different forms of capital. This piece returns to the underlying and changing kinship network structure of the village of Ambridge over time, explores the role of ‘kin-keeping’ as deployed by the matriarchs Peggy and Jill. I am most interested in the ways in which gender as performed by the women of the village intersects with abundance or lack of other forms of capital, and how far inequalities persist and why. It is clear that there is an intergenerational power dynamic at play in the spreading or hoarding of the various dimensions of power layered together and how forms of capital intersect for protection or precarity. Social and cultural capital at birth in the village is defining in terms of both ‘serious’ life outcomes as well as how more minor infractions and foibles are viewed. Further, I return to discuss how my various network-based predictions have fared over time. The Headlam Hypothesis and the fate of Ed Grundy – King of Ambridge are revisited and their durability explored.

Details

Flapjacks and Feudalism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-389-5

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Caroline Norrie, Jill Manthorpe, Stephen Martineau and Martin Stevens

Whether social workers should have a power of entry in cases where individuals seem to be hindering safeguarding enquiries for community-dwelling adults at risk is a

Abstract

Purpose

Whether social workers should have a power of entry in cases where individuals seem to be hindering safeguarding enquiries for community-dwelling adults at risk is a topical question in England. The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of a re-examination of relevant sections of the 2012 Government Safeguarding Power of Entry Consultation.

Design/methodology/approach

Re-analysis of responses to question three of the 2012 Government’s Safeguarding Power of Entry Consultation was undertaken in late 2015-early 2016. The consultation submissions were located and searched for information on views of the prevalence of the situations where access to an adult at risk (with decision-making capacity) is being hindered by a third party and the nature of examples where a new power of entry might be considered appropriate by consultation respondents.

Findings

The majority of respondents to the consultation generally reported that situations when a new power of entry would be required were not encountered regularly; however a minority of respondents stated these situations occurred more frequently. Examples of situations where third parties appeared to be hindering access were given across the different categories of adults at risk and types of abuse and current practices were described. Respondents observed that the risks of excessive or inappropriate use of any new powers needed to be considered carefully.

Originality/value

This re-analysis sheds light on the prevalence and circumstances of the problems encountered about access to adults at risk. The legal framework of adult safeguarding continues to be of interest to policy makers, researchers and practitioners.

Details

The Journal of Adult Protection, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1466-8203

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2005

Sujatha Perera, Jill McKinnon and Graeme Harrison

This paper uses a stakeholder approach to examine how the role of accounting and the status of accountants changed over a 30 year period (1970 to 2000) in a major…

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5037

Abstract

This paper uses a stakeholder approach to examine how the role of accounting and the status of accountants changed over a 30 year period (1970 to 2000) in a major Australian government trading enterprise. Data are gathered from semi‐structured interviews with organizational participants and documentation. The study provides support for the importance of stakeholders in shaping organizational processes and practices, including accounting practices, and for the effects of changes in stakeholder constituency and agenda on such practices. The study also provides evidence of the roles accounting and accountants may play in implementing a stakeholder agenda, including both instrumental and symbolic roles, and how the status of accountants may rise and fall commensurate with those roles.

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Beth Waudby and Jill Poulston

This paper aims to examine employee responses to sexual behaviour in hospitality workplaces, to determine their roles and responsibilities in harassment prevention.

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1555

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine employee responses to sexual behaviour in hospitality workplaces, to determine their roles and responsibilities in harassment prevention.

Design

Female workers in restaurants and bars were recruited using the snowball technique, and data collected through 18 interviews. An interpretivist approach was used to guide the data collection and analysis.

Findings

The study found that harassment coping strategies developed with age and experience rather than through training, and those who dressed and behaved provocatively attracted more unwanted sexual attention.

Practical implications

Recommendations focus on the role of managers in moderating employee behaviour and providing training in assertiveness.

Social implications

Industry norms and perceptions about managers’ expectations are considered strong influences on employee behaviour, and therefore, in attracting harassment.

Originality

Although this study locates the responsibility for stopping harassment with management, it takes an unusual and potentially unpalatable approach by acknowledging the role of victims in stopping unwanted sexual advances, providing new approaches to reducing harassment.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1996

Rayma L. Harchar and Adrienne E. Hyle

Suggests that the research literature provides no clear perspective of the tasks needed for effective instructional leadership and no definitive set of traits for…

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2266

Abstract

Suggests that the research literature provides no clear perspective of the tasks needed for effective instructional leadership and no definitive set of traits for instructional leaders. Describes a study which sought to develop a theory of instructional leadership grounded in data from practising administrators and their teachers. Grounded theory served as both the theoretical structure and research design. Findings indicated effective elementary instructional leaders engaged in a variety of strategies designed to balance power inequities in their school and school community. The strategies are not linear and not all are used by every administrator; they occur both simultaneously and at varying times, building on each other. The theory known as collaborative power was developed as a model designed to equalize power inequities, fostering instructional leadership strategies and perspectives at the elementary level.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2018

Vicky Heap and Jill Dickinson

The purpose of this paper is to critically appraise the Public Spaces Protection Orders (PSPOs) policy that was introduced by the Anti-Social Behaviour, Crime and Policing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to critically appraise the Public Spaces Protection Orders (PSPOs) policy that was introduced by the Anti-Social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act (2014). Within a designated area assigned by the local council, PSPOs can prohibit or require specific behaviours to improve the quality of life for people inhabiting that space. Those who do not comply face a fixed penalty notice of £100 or a fine of £1,000 on summary conviction. However, the practical and theoretical impact associated with the development of these powers has yet to be fully explored.

Design/methodology/approach

Using Bannister and O’Sullivan’s (2013) discussion of civility and anti-social behaviour policy as a starting point, the authors show how PSPOs could create new frontiers in exclusion, intolerance and criminalisation, as PSPOs enable the prohibition of any type of behaviour perceived to negatively affect the quality of life.

Findings

Local councils in England and Wales now have unlimited and unregulated powers to control public spaces. The authors suggest that this has the potential to produce localised tolerance thresholds and civility agendas that currently target and further marginalise vulnerable people, and the authors highlight street sleeping homeless people as one such group.

Originality/value

There has been little academic debate on this topic. This paper raises a number of original, conceptual questions that provide an analytical framework for future empirical research. The authors also use original data from Freedom of Information requests to contextualise the discussions.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

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