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Article
Publication date: 28 November 2022

Jiekuan Zhang and Yan Zhang

Although extensive studies have examined the link between tourism and carbon emissions, the impact of tourism on carbon emissions remains controversial. In contrast to…

Abstract

Purpose

Although extensive studies have examined the link between tourism and carbon emissions, the impact of tourism on carbon emissions remains controversial. In contrast to prior studies, this study aims to investigate the effects of tourism on carbon emissions at the city level and the underlying moderating mechanism.

Design/methodology/approach

This study designs an econometric model drawing on panel data for 313 city-level regions in China from 2001 to 2019. This study also performs rigorous robustness tests to support the regression results. In addition, the temporal and spatial heterogeneity is analyzed based on which this study discusses the moderators of the effects of tourism on carbon emissions.

Findings

The results show that both tourist arrivals and tourism revenue significantly impact carbon emissions. Also, there exists a significant temporal and spatial heterogeneity of these effects. Economic development significantly enhances while green technology and tertiary industry development suppress the positive relationship between tourism and carbon emissions. Moreover, regarding the impact on carbon emissions, an explicit substitution exists between tourism and tertiary industry development.

Originality/value

For the first time, this study quantitatively estimates the moderators of tourism’s impact on carbon emissions and concludes the moderating effects of economic growth, technological progress and industrial structure, thus furthering the theoretical understanding of the heterogeneity of tourism’s association with carbon emissions. The study also fills a technical gap in previous studies by demonstrating the reliability of the findings through various robustness tests. This is also the first empirical study to systematically examine the relationship between tourism and carbon emissions in China.

目的

尽管已经有大量的研究考察了旅游和碳排放之间的联系, 但旅游对碳排放的影响仍有争议。与之前的研究相比, 本研究旨在研究城市层面上旅游业对碳排放的影响以及潜在的调节机制。

设计/方法/途径

本研究基于2001-2019年中国313个城市层面的面板数据, 设计了一个计量经济学模型。本研究还进行了各种严格的稳健性检验以支持基准回归结果。本研究还分析了时空异质性, 并在此基础上讨论了旅游对碳排放影响的调节因素。

发现

研究结果显示, 旅游者人次和旅游收入都对碳排放有明显影响。同时, 这些影响存在明显的时间和空间异质性。经济发展明显增强但是绿色技术和第三产业发展抑制了旅游业与碳排放之间的正向关系。此外, 旅游业和第三产业发展在对碳排放的影响方面存在显著的替代关系。

原创性/价值

本研究首次定量估计了旅游业对碳排放影响的调节因素, 并总结出经济增长、技术进步和产业结构的调节作用, 从而进一步推动了对旅游业与碳排放关联的异质性的理论认识。文章还填补了以往研究的技术空白, 通过各种稳健性检验证明了研究结果的可靠性。本研究还是第一个系统地研究中国旅游业与碳排放关系的实证研究。

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Este estudio diseña un modelo econométrico basado en datos de panel para 313 regiones a nivel de ciudad en China desde 2001 hasta 2019. Este estudio también aplica rigurosas pruebas de robustez para apoyar los resultados de la regresión. Además, se analiza la heterogeneidad temporal y espacial en base a la cual este estudio discute los moderadores efectos del turismo en las emisiones de carbono.

Objetivo

Aunque numerosos estudios han examinado la relación entre el turismo y las emisiones de carbono, su impacto sigue siendo controvertido. A diferencia de los estudios anteriores, este estudio pretende investigar los efectos del turismo en las emisiones de carbono a nivel de ciudad y el mecanismo moderador subyacente.

Conclusiones

Los resultados muestran que tanto las llegadas de turistas como los ingresos por turismo influyen significativamente en las emisiones de carbono. Además, existe una importante heterogeneidad temporal y espacial de estos efectos. El desarrollo económico aumenta significativamente, mientras que la tecnología verde y el desarrollo de la industria terciaria suprimen la relación positiva entre el turismo y las emisiones de carbono. Además, en lo que respecta al impacto sobre las emisiones de carbono, existe una sustitución explícita entre el turismo y el desarrollo de la industria terciaria.

Originalidad/valor

Por primera vez, este estudio estima cuantitativamente los moderadores del impacto del turismo en las emisiones de carbono y concluye los efectos moderadores del crecimiento económico, el progreso tecnológico y la estructura industrial, lo que permite avanzar en la comprensión teórica de la heterogeneidad de la asociación del turismo con las emisiones de carbono. El artículo también resuelve una carencia técnica de los estudios anteriores al demostrar la fiabilidad de las conclusiones mediante diversas pruebas de solidez. Este es también el primer estudio empírico que examina sistemáticamente la relación entre el turismo y las emisiones de carbono en China.

Article
Publication date: 8 May 2019

Claire Seungeun Lee

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to explore how China uses a social credit system as part of its “data-driven authoritarianism” policy; and second, to…

4619

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to explore how China uses a social credit system as part of its “data-driven authoritarianism” policy; and second, to investigate how datafication, which is a method to legitimize data collection, and dataveillance, which is continuous surveillance through the use of data, offer the Chinese state a legitimate method of monitoring, surveilling and controlling citizens, businesses and society. Taken together, China’s social credit system is analyzed as an integrated tool for datafication, dataveillance and data-driven authoritarianism.

Design/methodology/approach

This study combines the personal narratives of 22 Chinese citizens with policy analyses, online discussions and media reports. The stories were collected using a scenario-based story completion method to understand the participants’ perceptions of the recently introduced social credit system in China.

Findings

China’s new social credit system, which turns both online and offline behaviors into a credit score through smartphone apps, creates a “new normal” way of life for Chinese citizens. This data-driven authoritarianism uses data and technology to enhance citizen surveillance. Interactions between individuals, technologies and information emerge from understanding the system as one that provides social goods, using technologies, and raising concerns of privacy, security and collectivity. An integrated critical perspective that incorporates the concepts of datafication and dataveillance enhances a general understanding of how data-driven authoritarianism develops through the social credit system.

Originality/value

This study builds upon an ongoing debate and an emerging body of literature on datafication, dataveillance and digital sociology while filling empirical gaps in the study of the global South. The Chinese social credit system has growing recognition and importance as both a governing tool and a part of everyday datafication and dataveillance processes. Thus, these phenomena necessitate discussion of its consequences for, and applications by, the Chinese state and businesses, as well as affected individuals’ efforts to adapt to the system.

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