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Article
Publication date: 3 March 2020

Vitus Mwinteribo Tabie, Chong Li, Wang Saifu, Jianwei Li and Xiaojing Xu

This paper aims to present a broad review of near-a titanium alloys for high-temperature applications.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a broad review of near-a titanium alloys for high-temperature applications.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a brief introduction of titanium (Ti) alloys, this paper considers the near-α group of Ti alloys, which are the most popular high-temperature Ti alloys developed for a high-temperature application, particularly in compressor disc and blades in aero-engines. The paper is relied on literature within the past decade to discuss phase stability and microstructural effect of alloying elements, plastic deformation and reinforcements used in the development of these alloys.

Findings

The near-a Ti alloys show high potential for high-temperature applications, and many researchers have explored the incorporation of TiC, TiB SiC, Y2O3, La2O3 and Al2O3 reinforcements for improved mechanical properties. Rolling, extrusion, forging and some severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques, as well as heat treatment methods, have also been explored extensively. There is, however, a paucity of information on SiC, Y2O3 and carbon nanotube reinforcements and their combinations for improved mechanical properties. Information on some SPD techniques such as cyclic extrusion compression, multiaxial compression/forging and repeated corrugation and straightening for this class of alloys is also limited.

Originality/value

This paper provides a topical, technical insight into developments in near-a Ti alloys using literature from within the past decade. It also outlines the future developments of this class of Ti alloys.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2006

David Metcalf and Jianwei Li

China has, apparently, more trade union members than the rest of the world put together, but the unions are subservient to the Party-state. The theme of the paper is the…

Abstract

China has, apparently, more trade union members than the rest of the world put together, but the unions are subservient to the Party-state. The theme of the paper is the gap between rhetoric and reality. Issues analysed include union structure, membership, representation, and the interaction between unions and the Party-state. We suggest that Chinese unions inhabit an Alice in Wonderland dream world and that they are virtually impotent when it comes to representing workers. Because the Party-state recognises that such frailty may lead to instability it has passed new laws promoting collective contracts and established new tripartite institutions to mediate and arbitrate disputes. While such laws are welcome they are largely hollow: collective contracts are very different from collective bargaining and the incidence of cases dealt with by the tripartite institutions is tiny. Much supporting evidence is presented drawing on detailed case studies undertaken in Hainan Province (the largest and one of the oldest special economic zones) in 2004 and 2005. The need for more effective representation is appreciated by some All China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) officials, but it seems a long way off, so unions in China will continue to echo the White Queen: “The rule is, jam tomorrow and jam yesterday – but never jam today” and, alas, tomorrow never comes.

Details

Advances in Industrial & Labor Relations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-470-6

Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2006

David Lewin and Bruce E. Kaufman

Volume 15 of Advances in Industrial and Labor Relations (AILR) contains 10 papers, four of which deal with human resource management and six with unionization. Six of the…

Abstract

Volume 15 of Advances in Industrial and Labor Relations (AILR) contains 10 papers, four of which deal with human resource management and six with unionization. Six of the papers were originally presented in “Best Papers” sessions at the 57th and 58th annual meetings of the Labor and Employment Relations Association (LERA). In keeping with AILR's global perspective and global sourcing of leading research, the studies contained in these papers draw on data from the United Kingdom, France, Asia, Canada, and the United States.

Details

Advances in Industrial & Labor Relations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-470-6

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Abstract

Details

Advances in Industrial & Labor Relations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-470-6

Article
Publication date: 30 November 2018

AiHua Zhu, Si Yang, Qiang Li, JianWei Yang, Xi Li and YiDong Xie

The purpose of this paper is to study the wear evolution of metro wheels under the conditions of different track sequences, track composition and vehicle load and then to…

236

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the wear evolution of metro wheels under the conditions of different track sequences, track composition and vehicle load and then to predict wheel wear and to guide its maintenance.

Methodology

By using the SIMPACK and MATLAB software, numerical simulation analysis of metro wheel wear is carried out based on Hertz theory, the FASTSIM algorithm and the Archard model. First of all, the vehicle dynamics model is established to calculate the motion relationship and external forces of wheel-rail in the SIMPACK software. Then, the normal force of wheel-rail is solved based on Hertz theory, and the tangential force of wheel-rail is calculated based on the FASTSIM algorithm through the MATLAB software. Next, in the MATLAB software, the wheel wear is calculated based on the Archard model, and a new wheel profile is obtained. Finally, the new wheel profile is re-input into the vehicle system dynamics model in the SIMPACK software to carry out cyclic calculation of wear.

Findings

The results show that the setting order of different curves has an obvious influence on wear when the proportion of the straight track and the curve is fixed. With the increase in running mileage, the severe wear zone is shifted from tread to flange root under the condition of the sequence-type track, but the wheel wear distribution is basically stable for the unit-type track, and their wear growth rates become closer. In the tracks with different straight-curved ratio, the more proportion the curved tracks occupy, the closer the severe wear zone is shifted to flange root. At the same time, an increase in weight of the vehicle load will aggravate the wheel wear, but it will not change the distribution of wheel wear. Compared with the measured data of one city B type metro in China, the numerical simulation results of wheel wear are nearly the same with the measured data.

Practical implications

These results will be helpful for metro tracks planning and can predict the trend of wheel wear, which has significant importance for the vehicle to do the repair operation. At the same time, the security risks of the vehicle are decreased economically and effectively.

Originality/value

At present, many scholars have studied the influence of metro tracks on wheel wear, but mainly focused on a straight line or a certain radius curve and neglected the influence of track sequence and track composition. This study is the first to examine the influence of track sequence on metro wheel wear by comparing the sequence-type track and unit-type track. The results show that the track sequence has a great influence on the wear distribution. At the same time, the influence of track composition on wheel wear is studied by comparing different straight-curve ratio tracks; therefore, wheel wear can be predicted integrally under different track conditions.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 71 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 October 2019

AiHua Zhu, Caozheng Fu, JianWei Yang, Qiang Li, Jiao Zhang, Hongxiao Li and Kaiqi Zhang

This study aims to investigate the effect of time-varying passenger flow on the wheel wear of metro vehicles to provide a more accurate model for predicting wheel wear and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the effect of time-varying passenger flow on the wheel wear of metro vehicles to provide a more accurate model for predicting wheel wear and a new idea for reducing wheel wear.

Design/methodology/approach

Sectional passage flow data were collected from an operational metro line. A wheel wear simulation based on time-varying passenger flow was performed via the SIMPACK software to obtain the worn wheel profile and wear distribution. The simulation involves the following models: vehicle system dynamics model, wheel-track rolling contact model, wheel wear model and variable load application model. Later, the simulation results were compared with those obtained under the traditional constant load condition and the measured wear data.

Findings

For different distances traveled by the metro vehicle, the simulated wheel profile and wear distribution under the variable load remained closer to the measurements than those obtained under the constant load. As the distance traveled increased, the depth and position of maximum wear and wear growth rate under the variable load tended to approach the corresponding measured values. In contrast, the simulation results under the constant load differed greatly from the measured values. This suggests that the model accuracy under the variable load was significantly improved and the simulation results can offer a more accurate basis for wear prediction.

Practical implications

These results will help to predict wheel wear more accurately and provide a new idea for simulating wheel wear of metro vehicles. At the same time, measures for reducing wheel wear were discussed from the perspective of passenger flow changes.

Originality/value

Existing research on the wheel wear of metro vehicles is mainly based on the constant load condition, which is quite different from the variable load condition where the passenger flow in real vehicles varies over time. A method of simulating wheel wear based on time-varying load is proposed in this paper. The proposed method shows a great improvement in simulation accuracy compared to traditional methods and can provide a more accurate basis for wear prediction and wheel repair.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 71 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 September 2021

AiHua Zhu, AiHua Zhu, Chaochao Ma, Jianwei Yang, Xin Hou, Hongxiao Li and Peiwen Sun

Considering that a meet between high-speed trains can generate aerodynamic loads, this study aims to investigate the effect of high-speed train meet on wheel wear at…

67

Abstract

Purpose

Considering that a meet between high-speed trains can generate aerodynamic loads, this study aims to investigate the effect of high-speed train meet on wheel wear at different speeds to provide a more accurate wheel wear model and a new idea for reducing wheel wear.

Design/methodology/approach

The train speed was set at 250, 300, 350 and 400 km/h separately, and a vehicle system dynamics model was constructed using the parameters of an actual high-speed train on a line. The aerodynamic forces arising from constant-speed train meet were then applied as additional excitation. Semi-Hertzian theory and Kalker’s simplified theory were used to solve the wheel/rail contact problems. The wheel wear was calculated using Archard wear model. The effect of train meet on wheel wear was analyzed for the whole train, different cars and different axles.

Findings

According to the results, all wheels show a wear increase in the case of one train meet, compared to the case of no train meet. At 250, 300, 350 and 400 km/h, the total wheel wear increases by 4.45%, 4.91%, 7.57% and 5.71%, respectively, over the entire operational period. The change in speed has a greater impact on wheel wear increase in the head and tail cars than in the middle car. Moreover, the average wear increase in front-axle wheels is 1.04–2.09 times that in rear-axle wheels on the same bogie.

Practical implications

The results will help to analyze wheel wear more accurately and provide theoretical guidance for wheel repair and maintenance from the perspective of high-speed train meet.

Originality/value

At present, there is a lot of focus on the impact of high-speed train meet on the dynamic performance of vehicles. However, little research is available on the influence of train meet on wheel wear. In this study, a vehicle dynamics model was constructed and the aerodynamic forces generated during high-speed train meet were applied as additional excitation. The effect of train meet on wheel wear was analyzed for the whole train, different cars and different axles. The proposed method can provide a more accurate basis for wear prediction and wheel repair.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 73 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 September 2022

Xie Yidong, Sun Peiweni, Li Qiang, Fu Caozheng, AiHua Zhu, Jianwei Yang and Chaochao Ma

The CL60 steel wheels of metro vehicles running on a specific line need frequent reprofiling due to rapid wear. Considering this problem, a new material for metro wheels…

Abstract

Purpose

The CL60 steel wheels of metro vehicles running on a specific line need frequent reprofiling due to rapid wear. Considering this problem, a new material for metro wheels was designed. The friction and wear properties of the new material were studied, to reduce the wear rate and extend the service life of metro wheels.

Design/methodology/approach

Wheel specimens made of the two steel materials were tested using a GPM-60 wear tester under laboratory conditions. A field test was conducted on a specific metro line to track the wear in wheels made of the new material and CL60 steel wheels.

Findings

Under the laboratory conditions, the wear loss in the new material was 24.44% lower than that in CL60 steel. The field test revealed that compared to CL60 steel wheels, the new CL60 steel wheels showed a 19.42% decrease in tread wear on average. The field measurements for the wheels made of the new material are consistent with the results of laboratory simulation, suggesting relatively high wear resistance of the new material.

Practical implications

The results of the study can provide guidance on how to properly select steel material for metro wheels to avoid rapid wear and frequent reprofiling and reduce operating costs.

Originality/value

A new material for metro wheels was designed and developed by optimizing the content of Cr, Si, Mn, V and other elements. This material proved to have better wear resistance in both laboratory and field testing.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Quandi Wang, Yingcong Wang, Jianwei Kang and Wanlu Li

The purpose of this paper is to present a monitoring method for a three-coil wireless power transfer (WPT) system, which consists of a transmitting coil (Tx), a relay coil…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a monitoring method for a three-coil wireless power transfer (WPT) system, which consists of a transmitting coil (Tx), a relay coil and a movable receiving coil (Rx). Both an ideal resistance and a rectifier bridge load are taken into account.

Design/methodology/approach

From the perspective of fundamental component, the equivalent impedance of a rectifier bridge load is well analyzed. On the basis of the circuit model of a three-coil WPT, estimation equations of the variable mutual inductances and load condition are deduced. Multi-frequency input impedance obtained by frequency scans combined with the Newton-Raphson method are used to obtain solutions.

Findings

Experimental results indicate that the estimated parameter values are close to each other when different sets of source frequencies are applied. When compared with simulation results, these estimated parameters including both mutual inductances and load resistances are found to be accurate.

Originality/value

Using only the information of input side, the proposed algorithm can estimate the mutual inductances and load resistance regardless of the Rx positions. Estimation is feasible for the system with a rectifier bridge load. The estimated analysis will serve as a key step in load power stabilization for WPT systems.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 13 September 2022

Haitao Ding, Wei Li, Nan Xu and Jianwei Zhang

This study aims to propose an enhanced eco-driving strategy based on reinforcement learning (RL) to alleviate the mileage anxiety of electric vehicles (EVs) in the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to propose an enhanced eco-driving strategy based on reinforcement learning (RL) to alleviate the mileage anxiety of electric vehicles (EVs) in the connected environment.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, an enhanced eco-driving control strategy based on an advanced RL algorithm in hybrid action space (EEDC-HRL) is proposed for connected EVs. The EEDC-HRL simultaneously controls longitudinal velocity and lateral lane-changing maneuvers to achieve more potential eco-driving. Moreover, this study redesigns an all-purpose and efficient-training reward function with the aim to achieve energy-saving on the premise of ensuring other driving performance.

Findings

To illustrate the performance for the EEDC-HRL, the controlled EV was trained and tested in various traffic flow states. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique can effectively improve energy efficiency, without sacrificing travel efficiency, comfort, safety and lane-changing performance in different traffic flow states.

Originality/value

In light of the aforementioned discussion, the contributions of this paper are two-fold. An enhanced eco-driving strategy based an advanced RL algorithm in hybrid action space (EEDC-HRL) is proposed to jointly optimize longitudinal velocity and lateral lane-changing for connected EVs. A full-scale reward function consisting of multiple sub-rewards with a safety control constraint is redesigned to achieve eco-driving while ensuring other driving performance.

Details

Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2399-9802

Keywords

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