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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Wenyi Xia, Kun Wang and Anming Zhang

This chapter reviews three main issues in the interactions between air transport and high-speed rail (HSR) in China, namely the interaction between low-cost carriers…

Abstract

This chapter reviews three main issues in the interactions between air transport and high-speed rail (HSR) in China, namely the interaction between low-cost carriers (LCCs) and HSR, HSR speed effect on airlines, and airline–HSR integration. Studies on these three aspects of airline–HSR interactions have yet been well reviewed, and our chapter aims to fill in this gap. In this chapter, we comprehensively survey literature on the topics, especially studies on Chinese markets that have recently witnessed major HSR developments (and have planned further large-scale HSR expansion in the coming years). Our review shows that, first, compared to full-service carriers, LCCs face fiercer competition from HSR. However, the expansion of HSR network in China can be better coordinated with LCC development. Second, HSR speed exerts two countervailing effects on airline demand and price (the “travel-time” effect and “safety” effect, respectively). Specifically, an HSR speed reduction can have a positive effect on airlines due to longer HSR travel time, but a negative effect on airlines due to improved perception on HSR safety. Third, airline–HSR integration can be implemented through cooperation between airlines and HSR operators and through co-location of airports and HSR stations and can have important implications for intermodal transport and social welfare.

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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2021

Yongxing Guo, Min Chen, Li Xiong, Xinglin Zhou and Cong Li

The purpose of this study is to present the state of the art for fiber Bragg grating (FBG) acceleration sensing technologies from two aspects: the principle of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to present the state of the art for fiber Bragg grating (FBG) acceleration sensing technologies from two aspects: the principle of the measurement dimension and the principle of the sensing configuration. Some commercial sensors have also been introduced and future work in this field has also been discussed. This paper could provide an important reference for the research community.

Design/methodology/approach

This review is to present the state of the art for FBG acceleration sensing technologies from two aspects: the principle of the measurement dimension (one-dimension and multi-dimension) and the principle of the sensing configuration (beam type, radial vibration type, axial vibration type and other composite structures).

Findings

The current research on developing FBG acceleration sensors is mainly focused on the sensing method, the construction and design of the elastic structure and the design of a new information detection method. This paper hypothesizes that in the future, the following research trends will be strengthened: common single-mode fiber grating of the low cost and high utilization rate; high sensitivity and strength special fiber grating; multi-core fiber grating for measuring single-parameter multi-dimensional information or multi-parameter information; demodulating equipment of low cost, small volume and high sampling frequency.

Originality/value

The principle of the measurement dimension and principle of the sensing configuration for FBG acceleration sensors have been introduced, which could provide an important reference for the research community.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Wei Huang and Li Jiang

Fertilizer overuse is regarded as one of the main contributors to agricultural pollution and environmental problems in China. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate…

Abstract

Purpose

Fertilizer overuse is regarded as one of the main contributors to agricultural pollution and environmental problems in China. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate technical efficiency (TE) and fertilizer overuse index (FOI) with respect to China’s arable agricultural production and examine regional variations in terms of fertilizer overuse.

Design/methodology/approach

The maximum likelihood random effects–time varying inefficiency effects model was applied to estimate TE, fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) and FOI.

Findings

Over the study period (2011–2015), TE steadily increased for each individual province. Overall, mean annual TE was 0.811, implying that, on average, Chinese provinces could increase output by 18.9 per cent given unchanged levels of inputs and technology. Mean annual FOI ranged from 0.008 to 3.139, with a mean of 0.685, suggesting that there is fertilizer overuse in almost all provinces, and that large regional variation exists. Coastal provinces were found to have the highest TE scores, while the central region showed the highest degree of fertilizer overuse.

Originality/value

The results indicate that fertilizer use has had a significant positive impact on production in the China’s arable agricultural sector. High TE was not necessarily associated with low FUE.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2016

Hao Liang, Luc Renneboog and Sunny Li Sun

We take a state-stewardship view on corporate governance and executive compensation in economies with strong political involvement, where state-appointed managers act as…

Abstract

Purpose

We take a state-stewardship view on corporate governance and executive compensation in economies with strong political involvement, where state-appointed managers act as responsible “stewards” rather than “agents” of the state.

Methodology/approach

We test this view on China and find that Chinese managers are remunerated not for maximizing equity value but for increasing the value of state-owned assets.

Findings

Managerial compensation depends on political connections and prestige, and on the firms’ contribution to political goals. These effects were attenuated since the market-oriented governance reform.

Research limitations/implications

Economic reform without reforming the human resources policies at the executive level enables the autocratic state to exert political power on corporate decision making, so as to ensure that firms’ business activities fulfill the state’s political objectives.

Practical implications

As a powerful social elite, the state-steward managers in China have the same interests as the state (the government), namely extracting rents that should adhere to the nation (which stands for the society at large or the collective private citizens).

Social implications

As China has been a communist country with a single ruling party for decades, the ideas of socialism still have a strong impact on how companies are run. The legitimacy of the elite’s privileged rights over private sectors is central to our question.

Originality/value

Chinese executive compensation stimulates not only the maximization of shareholder value but also the preservation of the state’s interests.

Details

The Political Economy of Chinese Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-957-2

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Ling Jiang and Juan Shan

Despite the growing research regarding consumer luxury value perception and their influence on luxury consumption behavior in different cultural contexts, there is little…

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Abstract

Purpose

Despite the growing research regarding consumer luxury value perception and their influence on luxury consumption behavior in different cultural contexts, there is little research investigating the cultural variation toward luxury within different generations in a given society. The purpose of this paper is to assess the relationships among Confucian propriety, luxury value perception, and purchase intention of luxury brands, and especially how these relationships differ between young and older consumers in a Chinese context.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through a questionnaire survey in China. A multi-group structural equation model was used to test the conceptual model and research hypotheses.

Findings

The results show that the effects of functional value and social value on purchase intention of luxury brands are stronger for older generations than younger ones, while the effects of self-identity and hedonic value on purchase intention are stronger for younger generations than older ones. The Confucian propriety relates positively to the functional value and social value; however, these effects are more salient for older consumers.

Originality/value

The results of this study reveal the evolution of luxury consumption values and behaviors of Chinese consumers, suggesting that marketers should no longer label Chinese luxury consumers with common behaviors. It is also recommended that marketers of luxury brands in China should adapt this shifting attitude and respond actively to the expectations of different generations.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 16 January 2017

Bo Zeng, Shaowei Fan, Li Jiang and Hong Liu

This paper aims to present the design and experiment of a modular multisensory prosthetic hand for applications. Design and experiment of a modular multisensory hand for…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the design and experiment of a modular multisensory prosthetic hand for applications. Design and experiment of a modular multisensory hand for prosthetic applications.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reveals more details focusing on the appearance, mechanism design, electrical design and control of the prosthetic hand considering anthropomorphism, dexterity, sensing and controllability. The finger is internally integrated with the actuator, the transmission mechanism, the sensors and the controller as a modular unit. Integrated with multiple sensors, the prosthetic hand can not only perceive the position, the contact force and the temperature of the environment like a human hand but also provide the foundation for the practical control.

Findings

The experiments show that the prosthetic hand can accurately control the contact force to achieve stable grasps based on the sensors feedback and a simple and effective force-tracking impedance control algorithm. In addition, the experiments based on the cosmesis validate not only the cosmesis functionality but also the control performance for a prosthesis–cosmesis system.

Practical implications

Because of the small size, low weight, high integration, modularity and controllability, the prosthetic hand is easily applied to upper-limb amputees. Meanwhile, the finger as a modular unit is easy to be fixed, maintained and applied to a partial upper-limb amputee.

Originality/value

Each modular finger of the prosthetic hand integrated with the actuator, the transmission mechanism, the sensors and the controller as a whole can independently control the position and the force. The cosmetic glove design can provide pretty appearance without compromising the control performance.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 24 June 2015

Wenxin Guo and Joseph A. Clougherty

We question whether the Chinese state has played an effective role in promoting outward foreign direct investment via its “Go Global” policies. Using the literature in…

Abstract

We question whether the Chinese state has played an effective role in promoting outward foreign direct investment via its “Go Global” policies. Using the literature in International Management as our framing, we observe three inter-related stylized realities. First, it is state-owned enterprises (SOEs) – not private enterprises – that tend to principally benefit from the favorable “Go Global” policies. Second, SOEs tend to pay much higher acquisition premiums in outward FDI as compared to non-SOEs. Third, SOEs tend to be less effective as compared to non-SOEs in gaining synergies and enhancing competitiveness as a result of these cross-border experiences. These results yield clear policy implications for the Chinese government: first, more effective public policy would involve enhanced targeting of private enterprises as the recipients of policies promoting outward FDI; second, the Chinese government should continue along the path toward privatization of SOEs. The continued bolstering of economic and social development in China is contingent upon efforts to reduce the state’s active role in outward FDI.

Details

Emerging Economies and Multinational Enterprises
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-740-6

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Li Jiang, Qi Huang, Dapeng Yang, Shaowei Fan and Hong Liu

The purpose of this study is to present a novel hybrid closed-loop control method together with its performance validation for the dexterous prosthetic hand.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to present a novel hybrid closed-loop control method together with its performance validation for the dexterous prosthetic hand.

Design/methodology/approach

The hybrid closed-loop control is composed of a high-level closed-loop control with the user in the closed loop and a low-level closed-loop control for the direct robot motion control. The authors construct the high-level control loop by using electromyography (EMG)-based human motion intent decoding and electrical stimulation (ES)-based sensory feedback. The human motion intent is decoded by a finite state machine, which can achieve both the patterned motion control and the proportional force control. The sensory feedback is in the form of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) with spatial-frequency modulation. To suppress the TENS interfering noise, the authors propose biphasic TENS to concentrate the stimulation current and the variable step-size least mean square adaptive filter to cancel the noise. Eight subjects participated in the validation experiments, including pattern selection and egg grasping tasks, to investigate the feasibility of the hybrid closed-loop control in clinical use.

Findings

The proposed noise cancellation method largely reduces the ES noise artifacts in the EMG electrodes by 18.5 dB on average. Compared with the open-loop control, the proposed hybrid closed-loop control method significantly improves both the pattern selection efficiency and the egg grasping success rate, both in blind operating scenarios (improved by 1.86 s, p < 0.001, and 63.7 per cent, p < 0.001) or in common operating scenarios (improved by 0.49 s, p = 0.008, and 41.3 per cent, p < 0.001).

Practical implications

The proposed hybrid closed-loop control method can be implemented on a prosthetic hand to improve the operation efficiency and accuracy for fragile objects such as eggs.

Originality/value

The primary contribution is the proposal of the hybrid closed-loop control, the spatial-frequency modulation method for the sensory feedback and the noise cancellation method for the integrating of the myoelectric control and the ES-based sensory feedback.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 45 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Applying Partial Least Squares in Tourism and Hospitality Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-700-9

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Xuefeng Zhou, Li Jiang, Yisheng Guan, Haifei Zhu, Dan Huang, Taobo Cheng and Hong Zhang

Applications of robotic systems in agriculture, forestry and high-altitude work will enter a new and huge stage in the near future. For these application fields, climbing…

Abstract

Purpose

Applications of robotic systems in agriculture, forestry and high-altitude work will enter a new and huge stage in the near future. For these application fields, climbing robots have attracted much attention and have become one central topic in robotic research. The purpose of this paper is to propose an energy-optimal motion planning method for climbing robots that are applied in an outdoor environment.

Design/methodology/approach

First, a self-designed climbing robot named Climbot is briefly introduced. Then, an energy-optimal motion planning method is proposed for Climbot with simultaneous consideration of kinematic constraints and dynamic constraints. To decrease computing complexity, an acceleration continuous trajectory planner and a path planner based on spatial continuous curve are designed. Simulation and experimental results indicate that this method can search an energy-optimal path effectively.

Findings

Climbot can evidently reduce energy consumption when it moves along the energy-optimal path derived by the method used in this paper.

Research limitations/implications

Only one step climbing motion planning is considered in this method.

Practical implications

With the proposed motion planning method, climbing robots applied in an outdoor environment can commit more missions with limit power supply. In addition, it is also proved that this motion planning method is effective in a complicated obstacle environment with collision-free constraint.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this paper is that it establishes a two-planner system to solve the complex motion planning problem with kinodynamic constraints.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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