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Article

Jian‐Guo Zhang, A.B. Sharma, Yu‐De Ni and Zheng Li

The design issues on network architecture and modulation scheme that can be used to implement reliable MIL‐STD‐1773 avionics optical fiber data buses are discussed. Both…

Abstract

The design issues on network architecture and modulation scheme that can be used to implement reliable MIL‐STD‐1773 avionics optical fiber data buses are discussed. Both single‐star and multi‐star architectures are presented to such optical fiber data buses. Several network configurations based on passive and/or active coupling components are also considered, and they are compared in terms of system complexity and reliability. Moreover, three modulation schemes are presented, i.e. partial trilevel Manchester II bi‐phase coding, extended Manchester II bi‐phase coding with beginning‐stopping flags, and pseudo‐four‐ary pulse width modulation, respectively. Their use can feasibly solve the problem associated with fast identification of correct operation states of an active transmitter at the output of optical receivers.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 72 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

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Article

Ma Juan, Chen Jian‐jun, Zhang Jian‐guo and Jiang Tao

The uncertainty of the interval variable is represented by interval factor, and the interval variable is described as its mean value multiplied by its interval factor…

Abstract

The uncertainty of the interval variable is represented by interval factor, and the interval variable is described as its mean value multiplied by its interval factor. Based on interval arithmetic rules, an analytical method of interval finite element for uncertain structures but not probabilistic structure or fuzzy structure is presented by combining the interval analysis with finite element method. The static analysis of truss with interval parameters under interval load is studied and the expressions of structural interval displacement response and stress response are deduced. The influences of uncertainty of one of structural parameters or load on the displacement and stress of the structure are examined through examples and some significant conclusions are obtained.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article

Hao-bo Zhang, Hui Chen, Xiao-ning Shi, Xiong Liu and Guo-jian Duan

The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of alkyl chain length and kind of anions of ionic liquids on the tribological properties with different materials as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of alkyl chain length and kind of anions of ionic liquids on the tribological properties with different materials as friction pairs (steel-aluminum, steel-copper and steel-Si3N4 ceramic).

Design/methodology/approach

Tribological properties were evaluated by an optimol-SRV-IV reciprocation friction tester with a ball-on-block configuration at room temperature and high temperature, respectively. Friction-reducing and anti-wear properties of the ionic liquids for steel/aluminum, steel/copper and steel/ceramic contacts were evaluated on the ball-on-block reciprocating UMT-2MT tribometer. The morphologies of the worn surfaces were observed by a scanning electron microscope. The chemical states of several typical elements on the worn surfaces were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Findings

Both the alkyl chain length and kind of anion influence the tribological properties of ionic liquids, especially for the length of alkyl chains. With the increase of alkyl chain length, the load carrying capacity of ionic liquids is improved at both room temperature and high temperature, and the friction reducing and antiwear behaviors are also significantly enhanced.

Research limitations/implications

The paper presents potentially useful and highly efficient lubricants.

Practical implications

Owing to their good friction-reducing and wear resistance properties, these ionic liquids are promising candidates for versatile applications.

Originality/value

This work might provide a promising research direction for design and application of ionic liquids as lubricants.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article

Jian Guo, Junlin Chen and Yujie Xie

This paper explores the impact of both government subsidies and decision makers' loss-averse behavior on the determination of transportation build-operate-transfer (BOT…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores the impact of both government subsidies and decision makers' loss-averse behavior on the determination of transportation build-operate-transfer (BOT) concession periods based on cumulative prospect theory (CPT). The prospect value of a transportation project under traffic risk can be formulated according to the value function for gains and losses and the decision weight for gains and losses. As an extra income for investors, government subsidy is designed for highly risky aspects of BOT transportation projects: uncertain initial traffic volumes and fluctuating growth rates.

Design/methodology/approach

A decision-making model determining the concession period of a transportation BOT project is proposed by using the Monte-Carlo simulation method based on CPT, and the effects of risky behaviors of private investors on concession period decision making are analyzed. A subsidy method related to the internal rate-of-return (IRR) corresponding to a specific initial traffic volume and growth rate is proposed. The case of an actual BOT highway project is examined to illustrate how the method proposed can be used to determine the concession period of a transportation BOT project considering decision makers' loss-averse behavior and government subsidy. Contingency analysis is discussed to cope with possible misestimating of key factors such as initial traffic volume and cost coefficients. Sensitivity analysis is employed to investigate the impact of CPT parameters on the concession period decisions. An actual BOT case which failed to attract private capital is introduced to show the practical application. The results are then interpreted to conclude this paper.

Findings

Based on comparisons drawn between a concession period decision-making model considering the psychological behaviors of decision makers and a model not considering them, the authors conclude that the concession period based on CPT is distinctly different from that of the loss-neutral model. The concession period based on CPT is longer than the loss-neutral concession period. That is, loss-averse private investors tend to ask for long concession periods to make up for losses they will face in the future. Government subsidies serve as extra income for investors, allowing appointed profits to be secured sooner. For the benefit side of contingency variables, the normal state of initial traffic volume, average annual traffic growth rate and bias degree and the government subsidy need to be paid close attention during the project life span. For the cost side of contingency variables, the annual operating cost variable has a significant impact on the length of predicted concession period, while the large-scale cost variable has minor impact.

Originality/value

With an actual BOT highway project, the determination of transportation BOT concession periods based on the psychological behaviors of decision makers is analyzed in this paper. As the psychological behaviors of decision makers heavily impact the decision-making process, the authors analyze their impacts on concession period decision making. Government subsidy is specifically designed for various states of initial traffic volume and fluctuating growth rates to cope with corresponding high risks and mitigate private investors' loss-averse behaviors. Contingency analysis and sensitivity analysis are discussed as the estimated values of parameters may not be authentic in actual situations.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article

Jun Wang, Zili Li, Gan Cui, JianGuo Liu, Chuanping Kong, Long Wang, Ge Gao and Jian Guo

The purpose of this paper is to study the corrosion behaviors of X70 steel under direct current (DC) interference at 0-1,200 A/m2 in simulated soil solution.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the corrosion behaviors of X70 steel under direct current (DC) interference at 0-1,200 A/m2 in simulated soil solution.

Design/methodology/approach

The Tafel polarization curves of X70 steel under DC interference were tested using electrochemical method, the corrosion rate was calculated using weight-loss method and the change in steel surface was analyzed by optical microscopy.

Findings

The results showed that E-I polarization curves under 200-1,200 A/m2 interference were linear; with an increase in the DC density, the corrosion potential of X70 steel shifted positively, solution pH after the weight-loss tests increased and corrosion rate increased linearly. A mathematical relationship between polarization resistance Rp and current density was established. Corrosion morphology indicated that pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion occurred on the X70 steel under DC interference in simulated soil solution.

Originality/value

All tests were conducted at a relative higher DC density (200-1,200 A/m2). The linear fitting method is proposed to fit data of Tafel polarization curves under DC interference. This study provides guidelines for safe operation of X70 steel pipelines.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 66 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article

George K. Stylios

Examines the tenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects…

Abstract

Examines the tenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article

Richard S. Segall and Qingyu Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the usefulness and results of applying web mining as extensions of data mining.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the usefulness and results of applying web mining as extensions of data mining.

Design/methodology/approach

Web mining is performed using three selected software to databases related to customer survey, marketing campaign data, and web site usage. The three selected software are PolyAnalyst® of Megaputer Intelligence, Inc., SPSS Clementine®, and ClickTracks by Web Analytics.

Findings

This paper discusses and compares the web mining technologies used by the selected software as applied to text, web, and click stream data.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations include the availability of databases and software to perform the web mining. The implications include that this methodology can be extended to other databases.

Practical implications

The methodology used in this paper could be representative of that used for managers to manage their relationships with customers, their marketing campaigns, and their web site activities.

Originality/value

PolyAnalyst is applied to analyze text data of actual written hotel comments. SPSS Clementine is applied to customer web data collected in response to several different marketing campaigns, including age, gender, and income. ClickTracks is applied to click‐stream data for Bob's Fruit web site to generate click fraud report, search report with revenues, pay‐per‐click, and search keywords for all visitors.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Energy Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-294-2

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Article

Ray Pine, Hanqin Qiu Zhang and Pingshu Qi

Franchising develops quickly in the hotel industry with the expansion and globalization of hotel chains, as it brings about advantages and sets up a very good leverage…

Abstract

Franchising develops quickly in the hotel industry with the expansion and globalization of hotel chains, as it brings about advantages and sets up a very good leverage between two parties – franchisor and franchisee. Major multinational hotel corporations have entered China, but franchising is seldom used as a tool of expansion there. The continuous increase in tourism and the structural change in the hotel industry in China afford more opportunities for the growth of franchising operations and also of indigenous hotel chains. When franchising in this specific market, quality control, ownership, connection, business tradition and franchisor‐franchisee relationships should be examined carefully in order to ensure success. A full understanding of China’s peculiar social, cultural, economic and political context is essential for foreign companies, whilst existing and new indigenous companies require greater technical and operating expertise along with the necessary business acumen to operate hotel chains.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article

Xu Huang and Yuanyuan Gu

Compared to other areas in China, Chaoshan region in Guangdong province has a more developed clan system set within a rural landscape. This paper aims to explore the…

Abstract

Purpose

Compared to other areas in China, Chaoshan region in Guangdong province has a more developed clan system set within a rural landscape. This paper aims to explore the relationship between the social structure (family–clan) and spatial form (housing settlement) of clan-organized rural China to understand the spatial form represented by “family and clan.”

Design/methodology/approach

By examining Dongli village and Huayao village, this paper outlines the typical path of spatial representation: dwelling of individual’s core family → mansion of the big family → settlement of a single clan → co-settlement of several clans. Moreover, it identifies three critical elements of the spatial representation: prototype (the spatial representation of the etiquette system); order (a hierarchical space set by the patriarchal system); and boundary (constructed on both physical and mental facts).

Findings

All elements indicate that descendants of migrants from the North maintain their self-identity and discipline clan members by planning the ideal space.

Research limitations/implications

The findings contribute to the ongoing discussions regarding how local cultural and historical experiences can influence renewed designs of traditional settlement areas (Aksulu and Eryildiz, 2003) and how digital means can facilitate updating designs of traditional buildings (Han et al., 2017). Such planning and design should involve greater public participation, considering the impact on residents’ daily lives (Pandya, 2005).

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the understanding of the relationship between cultural values and the spatial form of residential settlements in Chinese history.

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