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Book part
Publication date: 12 January 2016

Carl Anfinson, Thomas I. Wahl, James L. Seale and Junfei Bai

This chapter analyzes which factors influence adolescent obesity by separating nutritional factors of the food consumed from socioeconomic and demographic variables.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter analyzes which factors influence adolescent obesity by separating nutritional factors of the food consumed from socioeconomic and demographic variables.

Methodology/approach

A general linear equation is utilized to model the results empirically. A descriptive analysis is also utilized to determine which foods adolescents consume.

Findings

The empirical results found that food at home and food away from home and calories have a similar positive influence on obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI). The evidence shows that mothers have a greater influence on adolescents’ BMI than do fathers.

Practical implications

The results offer insight on what factors may be attributed to obesity in urban China.

Details

Food Security in a Food Abundant World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-215-3

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 March 2019

Ji Cheng, Ping Jiang, Qi Zhou, Jiexiang Hu, Tao Yu, Leshi Shu and Xinyu Shao

Engineering design optimization involving computational simulations is usually a time-consuming, even computationally prohibitive process. To relieve the computational…

Abstract

Purpose

Engineering design optimization involving computational simulations is usually a time-consuming, even computationally prohibitive process. To relieve the computational burden, the adaptive metamodel-based design optimization (AMBDO) approaches have been widely used. This paper aims to develop an AMBDO approach, a lower confidence bounding approach based on the coefficient of variation (CV-LCB) approach, to balance the exploration and exploitation objectively for obtaining a global optimum under limited computational budget.

Design/methodology/approach

In the proposed CV-LCB approach, the coefficient of variation (CV) of predicted values is introduced to indicate the degree of dispersion of objective function values, while the CV of predicting errors is introduced to represent the accuracy of the established metamodel. Then, a weighted formula, which takes the degree of dispersion and the prediction accuracy into consideration, is defined based on the already-acquired CV information to adaptively update the metamodel during the optimization process.

Findings

Ten numerical examples with different degrees of complexity and an AIAA aerodynamic design optimization problem are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed CV-LCB approach. The comparisons between the proposed approach and four existing approaches regarding the computational efficiency and robustness are made. Results illustrate the merits of the proposed CV-LCB approach in computational efficiency and robustness.

Practical implications

The proposed approach exhibits high efficiency and robustness in engineering design optimization involving computational simulations.

Originality/value

CV-LCB approach can balance the exploration and exploitation objectively.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2019

Min Li, Wenyuan Huang, Chunyang Zhang and Zhengxi Yang

The purpose of this paper is to draw on triadic reciprocal determinism and social exchange theory to examine how “induced-type” and “compulsory-type” union participation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to draw on triadic reciprocal determinism and social exchange theory to examine how “induced-type” and “compulsory-type” union participation influence union commitment and job involvement, and how union participation in the west differs from that in China. It also examines whether the role of both organizational justice and employee participation climate (EPC) functions in the Chinese context.

Design/methodology/approach

Cross-sectional data are collected from 694 employees in 46 non-publicly owned enterprises, both Chinese and foreign, in the Pearl River Delta region of China. A multi-level moderated mediation test is used to examine the model of this research.

Findings

Union participation is positively related to organizational justice, union commitment and job involvement. In addition, organizational justice acts as the mediator among union participation, union commitment and job involvement. Specifically, the mediating role of organizational justice between union participation and union commitment, and between union participation and job involvement, is stronger in high-EPC contexts than low-EPC contexts.

Originality/value

Instead of examining the impacts of attitudes on union participation, as per most studies in the western context, this research examines the impacts of union participation in the Chinese context on attitudes, including union commitment and job involvement. It also reveals the role of both organizational justice and EPC in the process through which union participation influences union commitment and job involvement.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 May 2021

Sophie Wodociag, Valentina Dolce and Monica Molino

This study aims to explore cross-border and sedentary workers' job satisfaction, analyzing the role played by employability dimensions (occupational expertise…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore cross-border and sedentary workers' job satisfaction, analyzing the role played by employability dimensions (occupational expertise, anticipation/optimization and personal flexibility), a job resource (autonomy) and job demands (job insecurity and toxic leadership), using the job demands–resources (JD-R) model as a theoretical framework. Moreover, this study tried to detect possible discrepancies between the two subsamples.

Design/methodology/approach

The study involved a sample of 250 employees, 40% of whom were frontier workers. Data were collected with a self-report questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS 25. A hierarchical regression analysis and t-test for independent samples were performed.

Findings

The findings evidenced differences between the two subsamples concerning the job satisfaction predictors. Specifically, for cross-border workers, optimization/anticipation appeared significantly positively related to job satisfaction. For sedentary workers, toxic leadership and job insecurity were significantly negatively related to job satisfaction. Autonomy was positively related to the outcome for both samples. Furthermore, cross-border workers reported a higher level of optimization/anticipation, personal flexibility and job satisfaction than sedentary workers.

Originality/value

This paper contributed to fill a gap currently present in the literature on the cross-border population, with a specific focus on job satisfaction. This study confirmed the existence of peculiar working dynamics for cross-border workers.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Tony Fang

To examine the nature of Chinese business negotiating style in Sino‐Western business negotiations in business‐to‐business markets involving large industrial projects from…

Abstract

Purpose

To examine the nature of Chinese business negotiating style in Sino‐Western business negotiations in business‐to‐business markets involving large industrial projects from a social cultural point of view.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual approach developed from personal interviews.

Findings

This study reveals that the Chinese negotiator does not possess an absolute negotiating style but rather embraces a mixture of different roles together: “Maoist bureaucrat in learning”, “Confucian gentleman”, and “Sun Tzu‐like strategist”. The Chinese negotiating strategy is essentially a combination of cooperation and competition (termed as the “coop‐comp” negotiation strategy in this study). Trust is the ultimate indicator of Chinese negotiating propensities and role choices.

Research limitations/implications

The focus of this study is on Chinese negotiating style shown in large B2B negotiations with Chinese SOEs.

Originality/value

Differing from most other studies on Chinese negotiating style which tend to depict the Chinese negotiator as either sincere or deceptive, this study points out that there exists an intrinsic paradox in Chinese negotiating style which reflects the Yin Yang thinking. The Chinese negotiator has a cultural capacity to negotiate both sincerely and deceptively and he/she changes coping strategies according to situation and context, all depending on the level of trust between negotiating partners.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2013

Sheau‐yueh J. Chao

The purpose of this paper is to provide the historical background of genealogical records and analyze the value of Chinese genealogical research through the study of names…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide the historical background of genealogical records and analyze the value of Chinese genealogical research through the study of names and genealogical resources.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines the historical evolution and value of Chinese genealogical records, with the focus on researching the Islamic Chinese names used by the people living in Guilin. The highlight of this paper includes the analysis and evolution of the Islamic Chinese names commonly adopted by the local people in Guilin. It concludes with the recommendations on emphasizing and making the best use of genealogical records to enhance the research value of Chinese overseas studies.

Findings

The paper covers the history of Islam and describes how the religion was introduced into China, as well as Muslims' ethnicity and identity. It also places focus on the importance of building a research collection in Asian history and Chinese genealogy.

Research limitations/implications

This research study has a strong subject focus on Chinese genealogy, Asian history, and Islamic Chinese surnames. It is a narrow field that few researchers have delved into.

Practical implications

The results of this study will assist students, researchers, and the general public in tracing the origin of their surnames and developing their interest in the social and historical value of Chinese local history and genealogies.

Social implications

The study of Chinese surnames is, by itself, a particular field for researching the social and political implications of contemporary Chinese society during the time the family members lived.

Originality/value

Very little research has been done in the area of Chinese local history and genealogy. The paper would be of value to researchers such as historians, sociologists, ethnologists and archaeologists, as well as students and anyone interested in researching a surname origin, its history and evolution.

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2021

Leo Lukose and Tanmay Basak

The purpose of this paper is to address various works on mixed convection and proposes 10 unified models (Models 1–10) based on various thermal and kinematic conditions of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address various works on mixed convection and proposes 10 unified models (Models 1–10) based on various thermal and kinematic conditions of the boundary walls, thermal conditions and/ or kinematics of objects embedded in the cavities and kinematics of external flow field through the ventilation ports. Experimental works on mixed convection have also been addressed.

Design/methodology/approach

This review is based on 10 unified models on mixed convection within cavities. Models 1–5 involve mixed convection based on the movement of single or double walls subjected to various temperature boundary conditions. Model 6 elucidates mixed convection due to the movement of single or double walls of cavities containing discrete heaters at the stationary wall(s). Model 7A focuses mixed convection based on the movement of wall(s) for cavities containing stationary solid obstacles (hot or cold or adiabatic) whereas Model 7B elucidates mixed convection based on the rotation of solid cylinders (hot or conductive or adiabatic) within the cavities enclosed by stationary or moving wall(s). Model 8 is based on mixed convection due to the flow of air through ventilation ports of cavities (with or without adiabatic baffles) subjected to hot and adiabatic walls. Models 9 and 10 elucidate mixed convection due to flow of air through ventilation ports of cavities involving discrete heaters and/or solid obstacles (conductive or hot) at various locations within cavities.

Findings

Mixed convection plays an important role for various processes based on convection pattern and heat transfer rate. An important dimensionless number, Richardson number (Ri) identifies various convection regimes (forced, mixed and natural convection). Generalized models also depict the role of “aiding” and “opposing” flow and combination of both on mixed convection processes. Aiding flow (interaction of buoyancy and inertial forces in the same direction) may result in the augmentation of the heat transfer rate whereas opposing flow (interaction of buoyancy and inertial forces in the opposite directions) may result in decrease of the heat transfer rate. Works involving fluid media, porous media and nanofluids (with magnetohydrodynamics) have been highlighted. Various numerical and experimental works on mixed convection have been elucidated. Flow and thermal maps associated with the heat transfer rate for a few representative cases of unified models [Models 1–10] have been elucidated involving specific dimensionless numbers.

Originality/value

This review paper will provide guidelines for optimal design/operation involving mixed convection processing applications.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2020

Chaoyue Wang, Fujun Wang, Changliang Ye, Benhong Wang and Zhichao Zou

Tip leakage vortex flow (TLV) is a common flow phenomenon in the axial-flow hydraulic machinery. High-efficiency simulation of TLV is still not an easy task because of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Tip leakage vortex flow (TLV) is a common flow phenomenon in the axial-flow hydraulic machinery. High-efficiency simulation of TLV is still not an easy task because of the complex turbulent vortex-cavitation interactions. As an important basis of CFD, turbulence model directly affects the efficient computation of TLV. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the newly developed MST turbulence model in predicting the TLV flows.

Design/methodology/approach

By using the MST turbulence model and the ZGB cavitation model, numerical simulations of the TLV generated by a NACA0009 hydrofoil were performed under the cavitation-free and cavitation conditions, and the results were compared with the available experimental data.

Findings

The important features of TLV are well captured by the MST-based simulation scheme, and the problem of under-predicting the cavitating TLV tube is well solved. Turbulent viscosity is reasonably adjusted in the TLV core regions, and the LES-like mode is activated, which is beneficial to obtain more turbulent information on the same URANS grids. The requirements of grid size and time step of the MST model are much lower than that of the LES method, thereby weighing a good balance between the simulation accuracy and computation cost.

Originality/value

The MST turbulence model is suitable for the high-efficiency simulation of the TLV flows, which can lay a good foundation for efficient engineering computations of the cavitating TLV in the axial-flow hydraulic machinery.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2009

Karen T. Wei

China's rise as a major player in world affairs has contributed significantly to the global interest in the study of Chinese language, society, and culture. Its emerging…

Abstract

Purpose

China's rise as a major player in world affairs has contributed significantly to the global interest in the study of Chinese language, society, and culture. Its emerging importance has also increased the need for China‐related library materials and information provision to China scholars and the general public in recent years. This paper seeks to trace the historical transformation and renewed interest in China studies and the growing demand placed on Asian or East Asian libraries that support China studies in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is a general review of the issues and challenges facing libraries in the West, which serve Chinese scholars, with the increasing demand for China‐related library materials and information resources, as well as for delivery of such information resources.

Findings

The paper identifies the issues and challenges facing libraries in the West that serve China scholars. The importance of collection building in China studies, the role of Chinese studies librarians, professional support for East Asian studies librarians in North America, and the changing outlook of academic libraries is highlighted.

Practical implications

In a world that is increasingly more global, Asian or East Asian libraries must gain better understanding if the issues and best practices to effectively provide information service through collaboration and resource sharing with partners in Asia to achieve true global collections.

Originality/value

The paper presents possible measures that can be undertaken to bridge the difference between the East and West. Specifically, the paper addresses concerns libraries outside China encounter and proposes suggestions regarding resource sharing, balancing a Chinese collection in a networked environment, financial challenges, continuing education, and bibliographic control.

Details

Library Management, vol. 30 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-5124

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2018

Lili Wang, Qingliang Zeng, Changhou Lu and Peng Liang

This paper aims to reveal the cavitation characteristics of three oil wedges sleeve bearing and set the theoretical and experimental basis for defining the oil film…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to reveal the cavitation characteristics of three oil wedges sleeve bearing and set the theoretical and experimental basis for defining the oil film boundary condition.

Design/methodology/approach

Computational fluid dynamics model of three oil wedges sleeve bearings based on the Navier–Stokes equation is set using Fluent considering turbulent situation and two-phase flow theory. The cavitation characteristics of bearing is investigated by taking pictures of experiment.

Findings

The rupture region of oil film and the contours of air volume fraction increase distinctly with the increase of rotating speed and the decrease of input pressure. The critical rotating speed of cavitation occurrence and oil film pressure increases with the increase of input pressure. The change trend of experiment cavitation with the rotating speed and input pressure is consistent with theoretical cavitation in general.

Originality/value

The finite element model of three oil wedges sleeve bearings is established based on the Navier-Stokes calculation equation of the fluid, two-phase flow theory and turbulent model. Sleeve bearing is transparent, the pictures of cavitation can be easily taken by high-speed camera, the cavitation characteristics of bearing is studied by experiment. The cavitation performance of three oil wedges bearings is studied with the change of input pressure and rotating speed, the change trend is basically consistent for theory and experiment. The study on critical rotating speed of cavitation occurrence is benefit for defining the oil film boundary condition.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 71 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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