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Laboratories typically consume 4‐5 times more energy than similarly‐sized commercial space. This paper adds to a growing dialogue about how to “green” a laboratory's…
Laboratories typically consume 4‐5 times more energy than similarly‐sized commercial space. This paper adds to a growing dialogue about how to “green” a laboratory's design and operations.
The paper is divided into three sections. The first section reviews the background and theoretical issues. A case is made for sustainable laboratories, introduce the Harvard Green Campus Initiative's (HGCIs) study of potential energy reduction in Harvard's research laboratories and examine other issues including: behavioral change, technical change, and the required codes and suggested standards that influence laboratory design and operations. Next, a survey conducted through a partnership between HGCI, Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH), and Laboratories for the twenty‐first century (Labs21) to clarify issues surrounding use of codes and standards in high‐performance laboratory design and maintenance is introduced.
Survey findings highlight the confusion among survey participants surrounding the applications and interpretations of current lab guidelines, codes and standards, particularly addressing sustainable performance. The findings suggest that confusion has financial, environmental, and human health consequences, and that more research is needed to define the operational risks to laboratory workers. Findings indicate that many energy efficient technologies and strategies are not routinely specified in lab design, perhaps in part due to confusion concerning the guidelines, standards and codes.
Although the survey sample size is too small to be statistically significant, it does provide valuable insight into the general confusion surrounding the applications and interpretations of current codes and guidelines, especially those addressing sustainable performance.
The practical implications of this research are many, including that there are many opportunities for technical and behavior improvements within modern university laboratories that yield great energy savings. This is critical as laboratories are one of the most energy‐intense building types on a university campus.
The critical originality of the paper is provided in the analysis of the obstacles to achieving the great potential energy savings that exist within the university laboratory context.
The purpose of this paper was to investigate the factors affecting the claim negotiations in Iranian oil and gas construction projects. The findings of this paper give…
The purpose of this paper was to investigate the factors affecting the claim negotiations in Iranian oil and gas construction projects. The findings of this paper give better understanding of claim negotiations in Iranian oil and gas projects.
The research methodology for this study involved the use of Delphi technique, conducted with non-Iranian stakeholders being involved in Iranian oil and gas construction projects more than five years and determined the major factors, affecting claims negotiations. Subsequently, factors’ weightings were derived using analytic hierarchy process (AHP).
In total, 13 affecting factors identified in three categories of: external, cultural and personal behavioral. Finally, the weights of factors were identified.
This research was conducted in the context of Iranian oil and gas projects. This industry has high standards and its employees are well chosen and have frequent in job training. All these affect the organization, working and people’s culture and behavior compared to other sectors of construction business. Therefore, the results of this research are specific to the oil and gas industry.
The findings of this paper can be considered as a practical guide for dealing with Iranian counterparts during claims negotiations to ensure amicable settlement. Also, it is useful for Iranian stakeholders to have better understanding of concerns of non-Iranian stakeholders.
The paper is the original work of the authors, and to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper has for the first time introduced the factors affecting claims negotiations. The findings of this paper provide useful insight into effective claims negotiations of Iranian oil and gas projects.