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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2014

Ashleigh I. Hodge, Keith L. Warren and Jessica V. Linley

– The purpose of this paper is to examine personal and social network characteristics that predict staff ratings of therapeutic community (TC) resident role model status.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine personal and social network characteristics that predict staff ratings of therapeutic community (TC) resident role model status.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 49 incarcerated female residents tracked interactions with peers, including verbal affirmations and corrections, during a 12-hour period. Two weeks later, staff members were surveyed about their view of participants as role models. Poisson regression was used to analyze resident interactions and demographics as predictors of role model status.

Findings

The number of corrections given to peers was positively related to staff ratings of role model status (B=0.234, SE=0.088, p=0.008). The number of affirmations given was negatively related to staff ratings (B=−0.112, SE=0.051, p=0.028). Resident phase was positively related to staff ratings (B=0.256, SE=0.102, p=0.012). These values did not significantly change when controlling for affirmations and corrections received from peers, non-programmatic interactions between residents, or resident demographics.

Research limitations/implications

These results imply that TC staff judge role model status by resident actions in the community rather than demographics or peer reactions. External validity is limited by the single site, case study design, and the fact that only female TC residents were sampled.

Originality/value

This study is the first to track resident peer interactions over the course of a day and to link those interactions to role model status.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Anup Gampa, Jessica V. Linley, Brian Roe and Keith L. Warren

Therapeutic communities (TCs) assume that residents are capable of working together to overcome substance abuse and criminal behavior. Economic games allow us to study the…

Abstract

Purpose

Therapeutic communities (TCs) assume that residents are capable of working together to overcome substance abuse and criminal behavior. Economic games allow us to study the potential of cooperative behavior in TC residents. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analyze results from a sample of 85 corrections-based TC residents and a comparison group of 45 individuals drawn from the general population who participated in five well-known economic experiments – the dictator game, the ultimatum game, the trust game, risk attitude elicitation and time preference elicitation.

Findings

TC residents keep less money in the dictator game and return more in the trust game, and prefer short-term rewards in the time preference elicitation. In the ultimatum game, nearly half of all residents refuse offers that are either too low or too high.

Research limitations/implications

While the study involves a sample from one TC and a comparison group, the results suggest that residents are at least comparable to the general public in generosity and appear willing on average to repay trust. A substantial minority may have difficulty accepting help.

Practical implications

Rapid peer feedback is of value. Residents will be willing to offer help to peers. The TC environment may explain residents’ tendency to return money in the trust game. Residents who refuse to accept offers that are either too low or too high in the ultimatum game may also have difficulty in accepting help from peers.

Social implications

Economic games may help to clarify guidelines for TC clinical practice.

Originality/value

This is the first use of economic games with TC residents.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2019

Jessica V. Linley and Keith L. Warren

Aftercare is an important predictor of outcomes following treatment for substance abuse. Despite this, there is evidence that the great majority of substance abusing…

Abstract

Purpose

Aftercare is an important predictor of outcomes following treatment for substance abuse. Despite this, there is evidence that the great majority of substance abusing clients choose not to participate in aftercare. Aftercare programs that are tied to specific residential treatment facilities, sometimes known as alumni groups or alumni clubs, might increase participation by offering former residents the opportunity to maintain treatment oriented social networks. Therapeutic communities (TCs), which emphasize mutual aid between residents, are ideal candidates for such programs. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 100 randomly chosen former TC residents were randomly surveyed regarding their contact with fellow alumni and their exchange of recovery oriented helping behaviors. A thirty day timeline follow-back methodology was used.

Findings

Contact was primarily through electronic means, particularly phone calls, texts and the alumni club Facebook page. Participants who reported more electronic contact also reported more days in which they offered and received recovery oriented help. Participants who were African American or had spent more time in TC treatment offered and received recovery oriented help on more days.

Research limitations/implications

While this is an exploratory study limited to one TC, this alumni club allows for the maintenance of a mutual aid network after termination. That network primarily consists of electronic forms of contact. A longer time spent in TC treatment may allow for the internalization of the practice of mutual aid. Further research on alumni clubs is warranted.

Originality/value

This is the first survey of TC alumni club members.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2013

Clive G. Long

The purpose of this paper is to review issues of relevance to practitioners using group cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) with women in secure settings.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review issues of relevance to practitioners using group cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) with women in secure settings.

Design/methodology/approach

The extant literature on CBT as applied to women in secure settings is reviewed to highlight best practice. Aspects of best practice are illustrated with examples from a women's medium secure service.

Findings

Obstacles include the characteristics of the patient group, treatment non compliance and an environment that accepts the primacy of security over treatment. Environmental and need factors amenable to intervention are highlighted in addition to CBT specific considerations that include the timing and intensiveness of treatment, content and delivery of therapy, treatment readiness and use of the group process. The use of a manualised CBT group treatment aid attempts to ensure treatment integrity is associated, and which is associated with treatment outcome. A focus on the social and environmental factors that attribute to the therapeutic milieu is vital to treatment generalisation, as is harnessing the therapeutic potential of the built environment. Finally, treatment evaluation imposes a structure that can facilitate progress in treatment.

Originality/value

There is comparatively little work on CBT group treatments for women in secure settings. Attempts to synthesise best practice initiatives in this area are helpful in guiding treatment developments.

Details

The Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2011

Brian Taylor and Barbara Campbell

Governance is an emerging aspect of social care organisations embodying professionally‐led risk management, quality assurance and service improvement. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Governance is an emerging aspect of social care organisations embodying professionally‐led risk management, quality assurance and service improvement. The purpose of this paper is to put forward a broad conceptualisation of the main dimensions of quality and risk in social care.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was undertaken to seek the perspectives on social care governance (SCG) of social workers in the South Eastern Health and Social Care Trust in Northern Ireland where clinical and SCG is formalised in the integrated health and social care service.

Findings

The 123 respondents were from a wide range of grades, aspects of work (practice, management and training) and both children's and adult services. Approximately, 60 per cent of social workers thought themselves knowledgeable on SCG, but this self‐reported knowledge was considerably higher amongst managers and trainers than practitioners. The risk register was familiar to 61 per cent of respondents. Social workers thought that useful ways to learn about SCG were team meetings, local workshops and engagement in developmental projects rather than training events.

Research limitations/implications

The 41 per cent response rate is typical of surveys of busy professionals.

Practical implications

Social workers were generally not very aware of the systems being developed to implement accountability and support through SCG, presenting challenges to the tasks of managing risk and improving the safety and quality of services.

Originality/value

The paper shows that Northern Ireland is pioneering the development of SCG in parallel with clinical governance in health care. Valuable lessons are being learned about the application of concepts of risk and quality in the complexity of social work.

Details

International Journal of Leadership in Public Services, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9886

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2008

Ronald E. Riggio and Rebecca J. Reichard

The purpose of this paper is to describe a framework for conceptualizing the role of emotional and social skills in effective leadership and management and provides…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe a framework for conceptualizing the role of emotional and social skills in effective leadership and management and provides preliminary suggestions for research and for the development of leader emotional and social skills.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper generalizes a dyadic communications framework in order to describe the process of emotional and social exchanges between leaders and their followers.

Findings

The paper shows how emotional skills and complementary social skills are essential for effective leadership through a literature review and discussion of ongoing research and a research agenda.

Practical implications

Suggestions for the measurement and development of emotional and social skills for leaders and managers are offered.

Originality/value

The work provides a framework for emotional and social skills in order to illustrate their role in leadership and their relationship to emotional and social intelligences. It outlines a research agenda and advances thinking of the role of developable emotional and social skills for managers.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Gareth Edward Ross and Jonathan Michael Auty

Democratic Therapeutic Communities (TCs) provide an environment for offenders to work on longstanding emotional and relational problems and address their offending…

Abstract

Purpose

Democratic Therapeutic Communities (TCs) provide an environment for offenders to work on longstanding emotional and relational problems and address their offending behaviour. The purpose of this paper is to explore the experience of making psychological changes on a TC from the perspective of residents.

Design/methodology/approach

Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to explore the experience of five former residents of the TC at HMP Gartree.

Findings

Four main themes emerged, each with two sub-themes: Motivation to Change (sub-themes: Engagement, Determination); Environment (sub-themes: Boundaries, Experience of care); Removal of Masks (sub-themes: Embracing vulnerability, Emerging authenticity) and Relationships (sub-themes: Re-enacting the past, Challenge from peers). Findings are discussed in relation to existing literature.

Research limitations/implications

Understanding service users perspectives on what helps facilitate change can help staff empathise with their experiences and strengthen their relationships. The importance of clear and consistent boundaries that are perceived as fair and the development of meaningful relationships with staff in creating an atmosphere that enables change has implications for other therapeutic or supportive environments. This research represents the experiences of five participants who were motivated to take part and comfortable to speak to a professional about their experiences. As such, generalisations about the wider TC population should be made cautiously and further research would be beneficial.

Originality/value

The research adds to the underrepresented area of service user perspectives in a forensic TC. It contributes a rich account of the experience of psychological change that can help staff working in TCs understand and relate to their residents experiences.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

Keywords

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