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1 – 10 of 235
Article
Publication date: 1 December 1999

Beth Blankenship and Peter B. Petersen

W. Edwards Deming, famous for his work with the Japanese following the Second World War, had a unique set of theories and approaches that were clearly his own. While much…

2008

Abstract

W. Edwards Deming, famous for his work with the Japanese following the Second World War, had a unique set of theories and approaches that were clearly his own. While much has been written about his experience and views, this article will focus on those individuals who made a significant impact on the formation of his views during the 1920s and 1930s and what he gained from each of them. Walter A. Shewhart was clearly the individual who had the most profound influence on Deming’s views and subsequent approaches to quality. But more than an influence, Shewhart was Deming’s mentor. Others who influenced Deming during this period include: Clarence Irving Lewis, Sir Ronald A. Fisher, and Jerzy Neyman. Those who wish to understand Deming’s theories can gain from studying Deming’s experience and views. In addition, a more detailed understanding of Deming can be gained by also studying the work and theories of those who influenced him.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 5 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-252X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 January 2021

Iwona Kowalczuk and Jerzy Gębski

This paper aims to contribute to the literature that discusses consumer tipping behaviour in eating establishments. Because there is no detailed research into this issue…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to contribute to the literature that discusses consumer tipping behaviour in eating establishments. Because there is no detailed research into this issue with regard to consumers in Central and East European countries, the authors conducted research aimed at learning about the tipping behaviour of the Poles.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was carried out in 2018, using the computer-assisted web interviewing method, for a sample of 1,000 people. Six research questions were asked: How often the Poles give tips in eating establishments? What is an average size of a tip? What determinants influence the frequency and magnitude of tips? Who is likely to give a tip every one to two visits? Who is likely to tip more than the standard 10%? What influences the reasons why Polish consumers tend to tip?

Findings

The findings show the strong relationships between both a consumers’ tipping frequency and magnitude and the frequency at which these consumers eat out. This study also implicates income and education as essential factors influencing tipping behaviour and the lack of gender effect on consumers’ decision to tip. It was also noticed that such reasons as the quality of service, a taste of the dishes and a belief that it is proper to tip have a significant impact on the frequency of giving the tips. A significant diversity of the reasons’ meaning for tipping among Polish consumers depending upon their age was also stated.

Research limitations/implications

It would be interesting to compare the results of the current study with studies concerning consumer tipping behaviours in other Central and Eastern European countries historically and culturally similar to Poland to investigate whether the specifics of tipping behaviour noticed in Poland apply elsewhere.

Originality/value

This study shows the specifics of Polish people’s tipping behaviour and partially fulfills the gap in the knowledge of this aspect of consumers’ from Central and Eastern Europe behaviour. The obtained results suggest that with the increasing incomes and the widespread use of food services, tipping is likely to become more common in Poland. Furthermore, the pragmatic reasons for tipping will become more important than social and psychological motivators.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 18 November 2021

Joanna Grochowalska, Piotr Jaworski, Łukasz Jan Kapusta and Jerzy Kowalski

In the cylinders of a marine diesel engine, self-ignition occurs in a very short time after the fuel injection into the combustion chamber. Therefore, this paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

In the cylinders of a marine diesel engine, self-ignition occurs in a very short time after the fuel injection into the combustion chamber. Therefore, this paper aims to develop a model of diesel fuel spray for the early stage of fuel spray in the marine diesel engine. The main technical aspects such as nozzle diameter of the marine engine injector and backpressure in the combustion chamber were taken into consideration.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, laboratory experimental studies were carried out to determine parameters of fuel spray in an early stage of injection in the marine diesel engine. The optical measuring Mie scattering technique was used to record the fuel injection process. The working space was a constant volume chamber. The backpressure parameters in the constant volume chamber were the same as during the operation of the marine diesel engine. Based on the experimental studies and important Hiroyasu and Arai models of fuel spray presented in literature was proposed new model of fuel spray parameters for marine diesel injectors.

Findings

In this paper, the proposed new model of the two main parameters described fuel spray evolution”: new model of spray tip penetration (STP) and spray cone angle (SCA). New model propagation of fuel STP in time was included the influence of nozzle diameter and backpressure. The proposed model has a lower error, about 15%–34%, than the model of Hiroyasu and Arai. Moreover, a new model of the evolution over time of the SCA is developed.

Research limitations/implications

In the future research of fuel spray process must be taken influence of the fuel temperature. Diesel fuel has a different density and viscosity in dependence of fuel temperature. Therefore are predicted of the expansion about influence of fuel temperature, new model of fuel spray for a marine diesel engine. The main limitations occurring in the research are not possible to carry out the research while real operation marine diesel engine.

Originality/value

An experimental test was carried out for a real fuel injector of a marine diesel engine. Design parameters and fuel injection parameters were selected on the basis of the actual one. In the literature, SCA is defined as a constant parameter for the specific preliminary data. A new model for the early stage of fuel spray of SCA propagation in time has been proposed. The early stage of fuel spray is especially important, because in this time comes in there to fuel self-ignition.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 32 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 October 2018

Tomasz Kwiatkowski, Pawel Flaszyński and Jerzy Zoltak

The simulations of grid-resolved rod vortex generators (RVGs) require high computational cost and time. Additionally, the computational mesh topology must be adjusted to…

Abstract

Purpose

The simulations of grid-resolved rod vortex generators (RVGs) require high computational cost and time. Additionally, the computational mesh topology must be adjusted to rods geometries. The purpose of this study is to propose the new source term model for RVG.

Design/methodology/approach

The model was proposed by modification of Bender, Anderson, Yagle (BAY) model used to predict flows around different type of vortex generators (VGs) – vanes. Original BAY model was built on lifting line theory. The proposed model was implemented in ANSYS Fluent by means of the user-defined function technique. Additional momentum and energy sources are imposed to transport equations.

Findings

The computational results of source term model were validated against experimental data and numerical simulation results for grid-resolved rod. It was shown that modified BAY model can be successfully used for RVG in complex cases. An example of BAY model application for RVG on transonic V2C airfoil with strongly oscillating shock waves is presented. Aerodynamic performance predicted numerically by means of both approaches (grid resolved RVG and modeled) is in good agreement, what indicates application opportunity of the proposed model to complex cases.

Practical implications

Modified BAY model can be used to simulate the influence of RVGs in complex real cases. It allows for time/cost reduction if the location or distribution of RVG has to be optimized on a profile, wing or in the channel.

Originality/value

In the paper, the new modification of BAY model was proposed to simulate RVGs. The presented results are innovative because of original approach to model RVGs.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 July 2019

Mirosław Seredyński and Jerzy Banaszek

Proper selection of the stability parameter determines the accuracy of dendrite tip kinetics at a single crystal scale. Recently developed sophisticated phase field…

Abstract

Purpose

Proper selection of the stability parameter determines the accuracy of dendrite tip kinetics at a single crystal scale. Recently developed sophisticated phase field modelling of a single grain evolution provides evidence that this parameter is not constant during the process. Nevertheless, in the commonly used micro-macroscopic simulations of alloy solidification, it is a common practice to use a constant value of the stability parameter, resulting from the marginal stability theory. This paper aims to address the issue of how this inaccuracy in modelling crystal growth kinetics can influence numerically predicted zones of columnar and equiaxed dendrites and the macro-segregation formation.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the original authors’ micro-macroscopic computer simulation model of binary alloy solidification, the calculations have been performed for the Kurz-Giovanola-Trivedi (KGT) crystal growth kinetics with two different values of the stability parameter, and for two different compositions of Al-Cu alloys. The computational model is based on single domain-based formulation of transport equations, which are discretized on control-volume mesh. To identify zones of different grain structures, developing within the two-phase liquid-solid region, an envelope of columnar dendrite tips is tracked on a fixed non-orthogonal, triangular control volume grid. The models of porous and slurry media are used, along with the concept of the switching function, to account for diverse flow resistances in the columnar and equiaxed crystal zones. The numerical predictions are carefully studied to address the question of how the chosen stability parameter influences macroscopic structures of a cast, the most important issue from the engineering point of view.

Findings

The carried-out comprehensive numerical analysis shows that the value of the stability parameter of the KGT-constrained dendrite growth model does not have a direct significant impact on the macrosegregation formation. It, however, visibly influences the undercooling along the front, separating different dendritic structures and the size of the undercooled melt region where the equiaxed grains can develop. It also affects the amount of eutectic phase created.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first attempt at estimating the influence of some inaccuracies, caused by possible ambiguities in choosing the stability constant of the KGT law, on numerically predicted macroscopic fields of solute concentration, the developing zones of columnar and equiaxed crystals and the macrosegregation patterns.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 June 2019

Slawomir Jan Stepien, Paulina Superczynska, Damian Dobrowolski and Jerzy Dobrowolski

The purpose of the paper is to present modeling and control of a nonlinear mechatronic system. To solve the control problem, the modified state-dependent Riccati equation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to present modeling and control of a nonlinear mechatronic system. To solve the control problem, the modified state-dependent Riccati equation (SDRE) method is applied. The control problem is designed and analyzed using the nonlinear feedback gain strategy for the infinite time horizon problem.

Design/methodology/approach

As a new contribution, this paper deals with state-dependent parametrization as an effective modeling of the mechatronic system and shows how to modify the classical form of the SDRE method to reduce computational effort during feedback gain computation. The numerical example compares described methods and confirms usefulness of the proposed technique.

Findings

The proposed control technique can ensure optimal dynamic response, reducing computational effort during control law computation. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is verified via numerical simulation.

Originality/value

The authors introduced an innovative approach to the well-known SDRE control methodology and settled their research in the newest literature coverage for this issue.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Alex Koohang, Joanna Paliszkiewicz and Jerzy Goluchowski

The purpose of this paper is to build a research model that examines the impact of leadership on trust, knowledge management and organizational performance.

8071

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to build a research model that examines the impact of leadership on trust, knowledge management and organizational performance.

Design/methodology/approach

An instrument containing six constructs (leadership: leading organization; leadership: leading people; leadership: leading self, trust, knowledge management and organizational performance) was designed and administered to subjects from all levels of management in various organizations in nine regions of the USA. Collected data were analyzed using partial least squares path modeling to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The study’s findings revealed positive and significant linear connection among leadership (leading organization, leading people and leading self), trust, knowledge management and organizational performance.

Practical implications

The findings imply that effective leadership (leading organization, leading people and leading self) contributes to elevated trust among people, promotes the successful implementation of knowledge management processes, and in turn enhances organizational performance. Therefore, leadership training and development must be a top strategic priority for any organization.

Originality/value

This study enriches the literature by demonstrating that effective leadership stands as the bedrock of the elevated trust, the successful knowledge management processes and the enhanced organizational performance.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 117 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2018

Jerzy Bakunowicz

This paper aims to present the analysis of introduction of single engine turbo-prop aeroplane class in terms of certification specifications and flight crew licensing regulations.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the analysis of introduction of single engine turbo-prop aeroplane class in terms of certification specifications and flight crew licensing regulations.

Design/methodology/approach

Following the results of flight testing and additional performance and sizing calculations, the proposed class was placed among the existing aeroplane taxonomy in terms of performance, flight loads, mass penalty, fuel economy and several other factors. Concerning small air transport initiative, the new class was tried to be placed as a starting point in commercial pilot career.

Findings

The paper points the potential market for single engine turbopropeller aeroplanes and lists today obstacles in wider introduction. Therefore, remarks about required change of regulations and requirements for design process, as well as for crew licensing, are underlined.

Practical implications

The results of the study would be helpful in preliminary design of a new low-power turboprop aeroplane, as well as during tailoring the certification specifications.

Originality/value

The approach presented in this paper is a detailed extension of an original idea presented by author for the first time during Clean Sky/small air transport workshop.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 90 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Jerzy Barglik and Albert Smalcerz

Modeling of induction surface hardening strongly depends on accuracy of material properties data and their temperature characteristics. However, it is especially…

Abstract

Purpose

Modeling of induction surface hardening strongly depends on accuracy of material properties data and their temperature characteristics. However, it is especially complicated in case of the magnetic permeability dependent not only on temperature but also on the magnetic strength. This paper aims to estimate the influence of the magnetic permeability on modeling of coupled physical fields describing the process. Investigations are provided for the gear wheels made of the steel C45E.

Design/methodology/approach

Computation of coupled electromagnetic temperature and hardness fields is based on FEM methods. The Flux 3D software is applied for the numerical simulation of coupled electromagnetic and temperature fields. The QT Steel software is applied for a determination of the hardness and microstructure distributions.

Findings

Obtained results may be used as a kind of background for the design of induction surface hardening systems.

Research limitations/implications

The presented calculation model provided quite a good accuracy of hardness distribution validated by the experiments. Next work in the field should be aimed at taking into account a dependence of the magnetic permeability on the field current frequency.

Originality/value

Mathematical model of induction surface hardening with taking into account time dependence on the magnetic permeability on temperature and magnetic strength is elaborated. Experimental validation of hardness distribution is provided. A quite reasonable convergence between simulations and measurements was achieved.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

Jerzy Cieślik and André van Stel

The purpose of this paper is to predict future career paths of university students, distinguishing between paid employment, running one’s own independent business and…

1319

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to predict future career paths of university students, distinguishing between paid employment, running one’s own independent business and running a family business. The main predictor is the students’ current mode of entrepreneurial exposure, both in terms of the students running their own business, and in terms of their parents running their own business.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a comprehensive survey held in May 2013 among 1,490 business and law students of Kozminski University in Warsaw, Poland. To predict future career expectations in ten years’ time, multinomial logit regressions were employed.

Findings

The authors find that, among students with a family business background, those students who are actively involved in their parents’ business are significantly more likely to pursue joining the family firm, rather than starting their own business.

Practical implications

In order to stimulate business succession, universities with a large proportion of students with family business background may consider launching dedicated programs promoting the interest of students in the businesses run by their parents.

Originality/value

The authors investigate to what extent active participation of university students in their parents’ business is associated with a higher probability to pursue a career in family business. The research has important implications in light of the increasing difficulty in Europe to find successors for family businesses.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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