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Moldova is one of the smallest constituent Republics of the C.I.S., with a population of just 4.3 million inhabitants. In agrifood terms however, Moldova has traditionally…
Moldova is one of the smallest constituent Republics of the C.I.S., with a population of just 4.3 million inhabitants. In agrifood terms however, Moldova has traditionally been one of the key “food baskets” for the rest of the former Soviet Union. Nowhere is this more marked than in the production of wine, with Moldova still supplying 20% of the total wine production of the former Soviet Union. In Central and East European terms the Moldovan wine industry is substantial; producing annually as much wine as Hungary and “Czechoslovakia” combined. This paper provides an overview of the Moldovan wine industry, highlighting key production and structural difficulties facing it as it attempts to gain access to hard currency earning markets outside the former Soviet Union. In particular, the problems caused by the recent reversion to the traditional monopoly‐monopsony structure within the Moldovan wine marketing channel are analysed. Suggestions are made for true liberalisation of the Moldovan wine marketing system, based upon three elements:‐ (i) De‐nationalisation, and a move to new private structures of ownership of Moldovan wineries; (ii) Modernisation of vineyard practices and production methods, driven by private incentive. (iii) The establishment of effective networks of marketing and distribution, based upon private wineries pursuing real markets.
A new modern style of wine has emerged in Hungary which draws heavily on the wine making and wine marketing success of the so‐ called New World. Examining two very…
A new modern style of wine has emerged in Hungary which draws heavily on the wine making and wine marketing success of the so‐ called New World. Examining two very different wine companies, one foreign‐owned, the other indigeneous, this article highlights the success of these initiatives, illustrating how they have boosted Hungarian wine exports and helped create a positive image for Hungarian table wine. Such approaches cannot be followed exclusively, however. Hungary will never be able to export all its production to the west. Attention still needs to be paid to both domestic demand for the old oxidised wine styles as well as demand in the other export markets in the former COMECON countries. This should help to provide a softer landing for an industry struggling with the upheavals of the last three years. The article concludes that Hungary's willingness to experiment and adopt western methods, together with its relative economic and political stability, suggest that the Hungarian wine industry could and should become the centre for innovation in Eastern Europe.
The Hungarian wine industry is in a state of transition. Old methods and practices are being abandoned and new techniques are arriving from the West. Tokaj, one of the…
The Hungarian wine industry is in a state of transition. Old methods and practices are being abandoned and new techniques are arriving from the West. Tokaj, one of the world's oldest and most famous sweet wine‐producing regions, is at the cutting edge of such developments. Examines the obstacles to be overcome in making a successful transition to the new marketing realities, surveying the approaches and progress made in Tokaj. Argues that there are three integral steps required in the formation of a competitive industry: reorganization of ownership; viticultural and oenological modernization; and Western methods of marketing. The impetus for such changes must come not only from within Tokaj, but also from collaboration with Western foreign investors.
Argues that lack of knowledge of Czechoslovakian wines in the international marketplace represents an opportunity to develop an identity based on quality, premium wines…
Argues that lack of knowledge of Czechoslovakian wines in the international marketplace represents an opportunity to develop an identity based on quality, premium wines from the most promising districts of Moravia and Slovakia. Czechoslovakia is also seen as a nation which already employs reductive Western‐style wine making. Suggests that this provides a robust base from which such a reputation can be developed. Recognizes, however, that there are a number of problems common to most of the former COMECON wine producers, and that many Eastern European wine makers continue to face something of a “Catch 22” situation.
There has been a revolution in the winemaking and marketing of the country wines of southern France in the Languedoc‐Roussillon — the Vins de Pays d'Oc. This revolution…
There has been a revolution in the winemaking and marketing of the country wines of southern France in the Languedoc‐Roussillon — the Vins de Pays d'Oc. This revolution has been founded on premium varietal wines and exploited modern techniques of vinification and marketing, which have drawn heavily on the experiences of the so‐called ‘New World.’ These new wines have successfully penetrated export markets, particularly the UK. Such developments, however, have attracted controversy, being criticised for encouraging the production of homogeneous, geographically inert, formulaic wines from well established rather than local grape varieties. However, a number of ventures are now showing increased recognition of local varieties and geographies in their winemaking and it is expected that such developments will continue. Moreover it is argued that the introduction of modern techniques in vinification and marketing, far from having a detrimental effect, have been of great benefit to the region.
By engaging in critical literacy, participants theorized Blackness and antiblackness. The purpose of this study was to have participants theorize Blackness and…
By engaging in critical literacy, participants theorized Blackness and antiblackness. The purpose of this study was to have participants theorize Blackness and antiblackness through their engagements with critical literacy.
The authors used a youth-centered and informed Black critical-race grounded methodology.
Participants’ unique and varied revelations of Blackness as Vitality, Blackness as Cognizance and Blackness as Expansive Community, served to withstand, confront and transcend encounters with antiblackness in English curricula.
This paper provides a model for how to engage Black youth as a means to disrupt anti-Black English education spaces.
This study provides a foundation for future research efforts of Black English outer spaces as they relate to English education. Findings in this study may also inform existing English educator practices.
This study theorized both the role and the flexible nature of Black English outer spaces. It defined the multi-ethnic nature of Blackness. It proposed that affirmations of Blackness sharpened participants’ critical literacies in Black English outer spaces as a transformative intervention to anti-Black English education spaces.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the drivers of customer value, and their respective relationships with customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions, between…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the drivers of customer value, and their respective relationships with customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions, between two culturally distinct groups of adventure tourists.
The study adopted a descriptive design and compared data from 301 Japanese and Western adventure tourists who experienced the same adventure tour. The respondents were split into two groups, and a path modeling approach was used to examine similarities and differences.
The results indicated that Japanese tourists attached more importance to emotional value and novelty value. Western tourists, however, attached relatively more importance to the utilitarian dimension of price value for money.
The main implication of this study is that tourism operators should account for differences in value perceptions between Japanese and Western tourists when planning tour operations, training tour guides, and managing tour itineraries. Operators should also consider customizing their tour products to fit the specific needs of these different cultural groups. This reinforces the adaptation argument when marketing tourism to international consumers.
This study highlights that different value drivers affect the satisfaction and behavioral intentions of Japanese tourists, relative to Western tourists. The need for adaptation of tourism products toward certain international tourists is thus necessary. The research also reinforces the importance of conceptualizing and measuring customer value as a multidimensional construct in an international adventure tourism context.
The goal of this chapter was to provide an insight into rules and norms behind generation Y social media presence and inform future research through an exploration of the…
The goal of this chapter was to provide an insight into rules and norms behind generation Y social media presence and inform future research through an exploration of the norms underpinning digitally mediated interaction and behavior among college-age students in Ireland.
The authors administered a questionnaire containing both closed- and open-ended questions among 131 first-year college students in Ireland, asking them to identify online behaviors and actions with a purpose of recognizing rules and norms that guided how they handled sharing, interaction, and mediated aspects of relationships in their use of mobile devices and social media platforms.
This study reveals that the driving force is the desire for and implementation of what can be called the norm of “Do No Harm Lest Others Do Harm to You.” This norm, rather than being driven by the Hippocratic Code of principled awareness is an expression of an acute consciousness of audience segregation and the need for self-protection in online interaction. The respondents were asked about the rules and norms that guided how they handled sharing, interaction, and mediated aspects of relationships in their use of mobile devices and social media platforms. Their responses demonstrated that millennials, in their everyday and intensive use of digitally mediated technologies, have begun to observe a new social contract of “Do No Harm Lest Others Do Harm to You” where internet becomes a space of entertainment and private messaging devoid of conflict and exchanges of opinion with others. Millennials seem to be closing down the scope of online interaction which in the long run can limit the function of internet as a social sphere where various issues, including political views, are exchanged and discussed.
The research is exploratory in nature and relied up on a relatively small sample size. For this reason, while the study produces new analytic frameworks, the findings could not be generalized. Additionally, there are certain features that appear to be specifically Irish such as a blurred line between perception of bullying and harmless having the “craic.”
This research makes explicit the harm mitigation and conflict avoidance strategies underpinning the use of social and digital media as it has been deployed and shaped by Irish millennials and discusses the consequences of their reluctance to engage in the public realm of the internet.