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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2007

James R. Van Scotter, Karen Moustafa, Jennifer R. Burnett and Paul G. Michael

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of acquaintance on performance rating accuracy and halo.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of acquaintance on performance rating accuracy and halo.

Design/methodology/approach

After expert ratings were obtained, US Air Force Officers (n=104) with an average of six years experience rated the performance of four officers who delivered 6‐7 minute briefings on their research projects; 26 raters reported being acquainted with one or more of the briefers. Raters were randomly assigned to use a rating format designed to encourage between‐ratee comparisons on each dimension or a format in which each ratee was separately rated on all dimensions.

Findings

Ratings made by acquainted raters were more accurate than ratings by unacquainted raters. Accuracy was positively correlated with halo for both sets of ratings. Rating format had no discernible effect on accuracy or halo.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of this study is that the measure of acquaintance was not designed as a surrogate for familiarity. Development of a multi‐item, psychometrically‐valid measure of acquaintance should be the first step in pursuing this research. The use of a laboratory design where only a small percentage of the sample was acquainted with those being rated also limits the study's generalizability.

Practical implications

The results show that prior acquaintance with the ratee results in more accurate ratings. Ratings were also more positive when raters had prior contact with the person they rated.

Originality/value

The hypothesis is that the cognitive processes used to produce ratings are different for raters who have had no prior contact with a ratee and raters who are in some manner acquainted with a ratee. In the past, a positive halo effect from acquaintance between raters and ratees has been a concern. However, this limited study indicates that acquaintance may actually result in more accurate ratings.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Transport Survey Quality and Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-044096-5

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Jeffrey Muldoon, Jennifer L. Kisamore, Eric W. Liguori, I.M. Jawahar and Joshua Bendickson

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether job meaning and job autonomy moderate the relationship between emotional stability and organizational citizenship behavior.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether job meaning and job autonomy moderate the relationship between emotional stability and organizational citizenship behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 190 supervisor-subordinate dyads completed three surveys. Linear and curvilinear analyses were used to assess the data.

Findings

Results indicate emotionally stable individuals are more likely to perform OCBOs in low autonomy and/or low job meaning situations than are employees low in emotional stability. Conversely, individuals who have high autonomy and/or high meaning jobs are likely to engage in OCBOs regardless of personality.

Research limitations/implications

As a survey-based research study, causal conclusions cannot be drawn from this study. Results suggest future research on the personality-performance relationship needs to more closely consider context and the potential for curvilinear relationships.

Practical implications

Managers should note that personality may significantly affect job performance and consider placing individuals in jobs that best align with their personality strengths.

Originality/value

This study sheds light on factors which may have led to erroneous conclusions in the extant literature that the relationship between personality and performance is weak.

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Book part
Publication date: 22 December 2017

Sarah Gaby

Organizations, especially youth organizations, often use media and communication tools to engage participants and achieve their goals. While these tools have the potential…

Abstract

Organizations, especially youth organizations, often use media and communication tools to engage participants and achieve their goals. While these tools have the potential to benefit organizations, it is unclear whether using media tools influences effectiveness and how their use compares to traditional engagement practices. In this chapter, I examine the impact of both media tools and participant inclusion on organizational efficacy, controlling for various organizational characteristics. I use originally collected survey data from paid staff youth nonprofit civic organizations in the Raleigh, North Carolina area. I find that using Twitter increases organizational efficacy, but the effect is ameliorated by the inclusion of organizational characteristics. I also find that media tools tend to be used by organizations in a one-directional manner, which may help explain their limited impact. Using media tools is not sufficient to increase efficacy since the way they are used also matters. Including youth in daily decision-making processes, however, increases organizational efficacy and the relationship is robust to including organizational characteristics.

Details

Social Movements and Media
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-098-3

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1998

Jennifer Kornegay, Larissa S. Grunig and PhD

Communication technicians are engaged in electronic public relations activities such as producing e‐mail newsletters, setting up teleconferences, creating Web pages, and…

Abstract

Communication technicians are engaged in electronic public relations activities such as producing e‐mail newsletters, setting up teleconferences, creating Web pages, and generating electronic press releases. This paper explores how and why communication managers should use computer‐based technology and new media. The concept of cyberbridging is introduced, whereby communication managers can use electronic communication technologies (eg, the Internet, WWW and on‐line databases) to conduct environmental scanning and informal and evaluation research. Through cyberbridging activities, communication managers gain power, connect with the dominant coalition, and have input to an organisation's broader decision‐making processes. The linkages with the dominant coalition and improved relationships with key publics result in greater organisational effectiveness.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 17 October 2017

Abstract

Details

Reflections on Sociology of Sport
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-643-3

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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2008

Raj Aggarwal, Victor Petrovic, John K. Ryans and Sijing Zong

Based on fifteen years of data on the annual Academy of International Business (AIB) best dissertation Farmer Award finalists, we find that these dissertations were done…

Abstract

Based on fifteen years of data on the annual Academy of International Business (AIB) best dissertation Farmer Award finalists, we find that these dissertations were done at a range of North American universities. Interestingly, dissertation topics differed from the topics covered in the three top IB journals with five‐sixths of the topics in management, organization, economics, or finance and two‐thirds set in a single country or region (U.S., Japan, North America, and Western Europe). Survey research is the most common methodology but analysis of secondary data is growing. As expected, the finalists are on average an extraordinarily prolific group.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 24 March 2021

Amanda Kennedy, Stacey M. Baxter and Alicia Kulczynski

This paper aims to examine the importance of celebrity brands in influencing consumer perceptions of celebrity authenticity, which drives positive consumer attitudes and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the importance of celebrity brands in influencing consumer perceptions of celebrity authenticity, which drives positive consumer attitudes and intentions. In addition, the notion of low-celebrity investment is investigated as a factor that diminishes the positive outcomes associated with celebrity brands.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 examines the effect of brand situation (endorsement versus celebrity brand) on consumer attitudes and intentions. Studies 2 and 3 investigate the role of celebrity authenticity in explaining the effects observed in Study 1. Study 4 examines celebrity investment as a bound of the phenomenon.

Findings

Study 1 demonstrates that consumers report heightened attitudes and intentions towards celebrity brands when compared to endorsements. Studies 2 and 3 provide evidence that authenticity explains the effects observed in Study 1. Results of Study 4 show that when consumers are aware of low-celebrity investment, the celebrity is viewed as inauthentic regardless of brand situation.

Research limitations/implications

This research is limited as it focuses only on known celebrity endorsers who were matched with products that had a high level of fit. In addition, purchase intentions were measured as opposed to the study of actual purchase behaviour.

Practical implications

This research has important implications for the development of endorsements and celebrity brands by demonstrating that consumers view celebrities as authentic when they are involved with brands for reasons other than monetary compensation.

Originality/value

This research shows that consumers have heightened attitudes and intentions towards celebrity brands compared to endorsements. This research identifies celebrity authenticity as the process underlying the observed phenomenon. However, celebrity investment is identified as a boundary condition demonstrating that knowledge of low investment results in a celebrity being viewed as inauthentic.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 55 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 August 2007

John Burnett and R. Bruce Hutton

The value of branding as an effective part of a company's marketing strategy is changing as the needs of the consumer has changed. The purpose of this paper is to identify…

Abstract

Purpose

The value of branding as an effective part of a company's marketing strategy is changing as the needs of the consumer has changed. The purpose of this paper is to identify these changes and to prescribe specific modifications that should be made to the brand and its implementation.

Design/methodology/approach

To better understand the evolving consumer a anthropological approach was employed. A variety of recent studies were considered and it was determined that today's consumer has three prominent needs: knowledge, authenticity, and personal experiences. The paper posits that creating positive experiences, via knowledge and authenticity, represents the next evolutionary phase of brand success.

Findings

Based on this new perspective on branding, the paper offers the following recommendations to brand managers and CMOs: discern the nature of the relationship customers want with the brand; position brand managers as spiritual leaders; speak to the end‐user through experiences and metaphors; create a master narrative that reflects the company's core value and is operationalized through the brand; apply the paradox of transparency; build your brand from the inside out, by encouraging employees to be advocates; and examine your current and desired brand personality.

Practical implications

The recommendations and examples of implementation offer the brand manager a roadmap to success. Although these changes would require the support of top management, the benefits are apparent.

Originality/value

It is critical that brand managers both understand and embrace the changes that are occurring within the consumer sector of society. More importantly, these managers must develop strategic and sound principles and practices that respond to these changes. This paper identifies these changes and offers solutions.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Effective Leadership for Overcoming ICT Challenges in Higher Education: What Faculty, Staff and Administrators Can Do to Thrive Amidst the Chaos
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-307-7

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