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Barriers to employment are a significant issue in the United States and abroad. As civil rights legislation continues to be enforced and as employers seek to diversify…
Barriers to employment are a significant issue in the United States and abroad. As civil rights legislation continues to be enforced and as employers seek to diversify their workplaces, it is incumbent upon the management field to offer insights that address obstacles to work. Although barriers to employment have been addressed in various fields such as psychology and economics, management scholars have addressed this issue in a piecemeal fashion. As such, our review will offer a comprehensive, integrative model of barriers to employment that addresses both individual and organizational perspectives. We will also address societal-level concerns involving these barriers. An integrative perspective is necessary for research to progress in this area because many individuals with barriers to employment face multiple challenges that prevent them from obtaining and maintaining full employment. While the additive, or possibly multiplicative, effect of employment barriers have been acknowledged in related fields like rehabilitation counseling and vocational psychology, the Human Resource Management (HRM) literature has virtually ignored this issue. We discuss suggestions for the reduction or elimination of barriers to employment. We also provide an integrative model of employment barriers that addresses the mutable (amenable to change) nature of some barriers, while acknowledging the less mutable nature of others.
The purpose of this paper is to collect and understand the nature of real cases of author name variants that have often appeared in bibliographic digital libraries (DLs…
The purpose of this paper is to collect and understand the nature of real cases of author name variants that have often appeared in bibliographic digital libraries (DLs) as a case study of the name authority control problem in DLs.
To find a sample of name variants across DLs (e.g. DBLP and ACM) and in a single DL (e.g. ACM), the approach is based on two bipartite matching algorithms: Maximum Weighted Bipartite Matching and Maximum Cardinality Bipartite Matching.
First, the authors validated the effectiveness and efficiency of the bipartite matching algorithms. The authors also studied the nature of real cases of author name variants that had been found across DLs (e.g. ACM, CiteSeer and DBLP) and in a single DL.
To the best of the authors knowledge, there is less research effort to understand the nature of author name variants shown in DLs. A thorough analysis can help focus research effort on real problems that arise when the authors perform duplicate detection methods.
We extend theories of the firm to the entrepreneurial finance setting and argue that R&D-focused start-up firms will have a greater likelihood of financing themselves with…
We extend theories of the firm to the entrepreneurial finance setting and argue that R&D-focused start-up firms will have a greater likelihood of financing themselves with equity rather than debt. We argue that mechanisms which reduce information asymmetry, including owner work experience and financier reputation, will increase the probability of funding with more debt. We also argue that start-ups that correctly align their financing mix to their R&D focus will perform better than firms that are misaligned. We study these ideas using a large nationally representative dataset on start-up firms in the United States.
The involvement of parents in schools and their contribution towards their children’s academic learning have been a focal point in educational research. The purpose of…
The involvement of parents in schools and their contribution towards their children’s academic learning have been a focal point in educational research. The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors that influence parental involvement in secondary schools and subsequently proposed a comprehensive parental involvement model.
Research articles, reports and dissertations on the factors that influence parental involvement were reviewed to obtain related empirical evidence for the development of a workable model.
A conceptual framework was proposed to understand the factors that influence parental involvement. The role of creativity in principals’ leadership practices and parental involvement in secondary schools were found to be related. Additionally, this relationship was found to be mediated by school practices and school climate.
A framework on the factors that influence parental involvement guided by literature review and three main hypotheses for testing were proposed, which require further empirical assessment.
The school–parent partnership shares a common understanding of the educational needs and social development of the children. The school administrators, school community, stakeholders and related policymakers can effectively leverage the findings of this study in the effort to enhance parental involvement within the school context.
Only a handful of research-based studies probed into the factors that influence parental involvement in secondary schools within the Malaysian context. This study identified several significant factors that enhance parental involvement in secondary schools.
This study aims to explore the challenges and barriers encountered by Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) women entrepreneurs in an emerging country…
This study aims to explore the challenges and barriers encountered by Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) women entrepreneurs in an emerging country context – Sri Lanka – within a context of strict gender role stereotyping beliefs and norms.
Using qualitative research methodology, 15 in-depth, in-person, semi-structured interviews were conducted with STEM women entrepreneurs using the theoretical lenses of intersectionality and social role theories in tandem.
Findings revealed that participants were confronted with an array of structural/administrative and gender-related challenges at the intersections of gender, entrepreneurship and characteristics mapped with STEM fields. Accordingly, lack of access and reach to networks and opportunities, procedural obstacles, difficulties in staffing, difficulties in obtaining finances, lack of understanding and support from family and society, difficulties in managing work-life, and legitimacy obstacles appear to restrain the participants in starting and running their businesses. These challenges have their roots embedded in a complex web of ideologies and expectations related to gender.
This research contributes to the scant body of literature on STEM women entrepreneurship in general and specifically to the literature on challenges facing STEM women entrepreneurs from the perspective of a non-Western – emerging economy, which is built on strong cultural strictures and gender ideologies.