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Seven authors contributed to this well-edited volume that explores the publications, lectures, public comments, and correspondence of several well- and lesser-known…
Seven authors contributed to this well-edited volume that explores the publications, lectures, public comments, and correspondence of several well- and lesser-known classical thinkers regarding women's role in society, politics, and the economy. The dual goals of the work as stated by the editors are to “show that the classical economists did concern themselves with gender analysis” and to illustrate that the classical school developed a “sophisticated response to the question, why is it that in all human societies women have suffered a lower status than that enjoyed by men?” (p. 2). This response includes three elements: the inalienable rights of all human beings, the unchanging biological differences between men and women, and the varying historical contexts in which men and women find themselves. The intersection of these three factors affects how and why women's status changes across space and over time. The goals of the volume are met to a great extent, and anyone interested in gender scholarship and/or economic thought will find the collection interesting and long overdue.
Studies of direct‐to‐consumer pharmaceutical advertising (DTCA) have examined the views of consumers and healthcare providers but the perspective of pharmaceutical…
Studies of direct‐to‐consumer pharmaceutical advertising (DTCA) have examined the views of consumers and healthcare providers but the perspective of pharmaceutical advertisers has been largely absent. This study sought to fill that gap by exploring the perspectives of advertising professionals working on pharmaceutical brands.
Interviews were conducted among 22 advertising professionals regarding the use of emotion in DTCA and considerations about consumer distrust and ad credibility.
Results suggest emotion is used to gain attention, increase involvement, and enhance information processing. Consumer trust of pharmaceutical companies was recognized as an issue, and various thoughts were provided on trust‐building strategies. However, several respondents expressed doubt that negative opinions of the industry translated into negative evaluations of the specific ads or brands with which consumers were familiar.
Based on participants' assertions, this paper poses a number of specific avenues for future research regarding the effects of emotion on response to DTCA and consumers' conflicting sense of trust within the pharmaceutical category.
While scholars examining the design and effects of DTCA have inferred the motivations of pharmaceutical advertisers, this study provides insight on practitioners' actual intentions behind the messages created for DTCA.
Measures of personality and organizational climate were subjected to three different analytical methods that extract patterns from data: Discriminant, Classification and…
Measures of personality and organizational climate were subjected to three different analytical methods that extract patterns from data: Discriminant, Classification and Regression Trees, and neural network classification analysis. Risk, openness, rewards, and neuroticism (rather than conscientiousness) emerged as key variables in differentiating among three similar work groups. Results of the analyses support the central hypothesis of ASA theory of greater variance in personality across compared to within organizations and an interactionist paradigm between person and environment. Implications for ASA theory and for personnel selection are discussed.
The purpose of this paper is to fill a gap in the literature by examining the link between managerial attitudes regarding localization practices and firm behavior. The…
The purpose of this paper is to fill a gap in the literature by examining the link between managerial attitudes regarding localization practices and firm behavior. The paper compares manager perceptions and understanding of their firm's web localization practices to the actual localization on their firm's web sites.
Two phases of empirical research were completed: a survey of localization attitudes for 65 Fortune 500 managers and a content analysis of localization practices of 27 German web sites. After reviewing descriptive statistics, a series of hierarchical regressions were performed to determine if responses to the localization survey predicted localization efforts, as coded by web site content.
The paper finds that multinational enterprise managers do consider localization to be important and that a managerial focus on localization, and on some of the important localization processes for web content, can lead to more localization of that content.
The paper reveals the localization norms within the industry. Managers often spend the resources necessary to localize with total standardization being rare. They are reluctant to outsource or let local partners have autonomy and want to incorporate some standardized content. Finally, managerial concern with the challenges associated with translation, internationalization, and quality assurance was linked to increased web content localization.
There is a body of literature stressing the importance of localization, but there is little to no exploration of the link between managerial attitudes toward localization and their firm's localization activity. The paper begins to address this gap.
Neoliberal structural adjustment policies (SAPS) have been criticized as having negative effects on women's employment. An analysis of several Latin American countries in…
Neoliberal structural adjustment policies (SAPS) have been criticized as having negative effects on women's employment. An analysis of several Latin American countries in the 1980s and 1990s suggests that differences in SAP contribute to differences in the growth of women's relative employment. Countries with less orthodox adjustment policies appear to have had greater growth in women's relative employment than countries with more orthodox policies. This pattern is illustrated with reference to specific countries and is tested for generality using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, incorporating data from all Latin American countries from which suitable data are available.