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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2000

Karen A. Jehn and Jennifer A. Chatman

Past conflict research and theory has provided insight into the types of conflict and styles of conflict resolution in organizations and groups. A second generation of…

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Abstract

Past conflict research and theory has provided insight into the types of conflict and styles of conflict resolution in organizations and groups. A second generation of conflict research is now needed that recognizes that the type of conflict present in a group relative to the other types present (proportional conflict composition) and the amount of conflict perceived relative to the amount perceived by other members (perceptual conflict composition) may be critical to group functioning. Therefore, we propose two types of conflict composition in teams and investigate the links between proportional and perceptual conflict composition conflict, and team effectiveness (i.e., individual and team performance, commitment, cohesiveness, and member satisfaction) in two organizational samples. We find group conflict compositions consisting of high levels of task‐related conflict compared to relationship and process conflict (proportional task conflict) are high performing, satisfied teams. In addition, when team members disagree about amounts of conflict present (high perceptual conflict), we find evidence of negative group outcomes. Implications for managers and group members are discussed.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Book part
Publication date: 1 August 2008

Jennifer A. Chatman

One interesting and unequivocal theme across the chapters is that everyone in teams, not just minority members, is affected by the group's composition – whites and blacks…

Abstract

One interesting and unequivocal theme across the chapters is that everyone in teams, not just minority members, is affected by the group's composition – whites and blacks, men and women, and those who are experienced as well as inexperienced. Further, though there is evidence that minority members may be more affected than majority members (both positively and negatively – see, e.g., Chatman, Boisnier, Spataro, Anderson & Berdahl, in press), it is clear that majority members are influenced by group composition as well.

Details

Diversity and Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-053-7

Book part
Publication date: 21 March 2003

Francis J Flynn and Jennifer A Chatman

Social categorization processes may lead work groups to form different types of group norms. We present a model of norm formation and suggest that group norms may emerge…

Abstract

Social categorization processes may lead work groups to form different types of group norms. We present a model of norm formation and suggest that group norms may emerge immediately following the group’s inception. Further, the content of such norms may be influenced by group members’ demographic heterogeneity. We outline a profile of work group norms and describe how social categorization processes influence norm formation. We also develop a series of testable propositions related to these norms. Finally, we discuss the implications of our social categorization model for future research on work groups in organizations.

Details

Identity Issues in Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-168-2

Book part
Publication date: 19 September 2012

Jennifer A. Chatman, Jack A. Goncalo, Jessica A. Kennedy and Michelle M. Duguid

Purpose – We investigate the antibias norm, “political correctness” (PC), and explore the consequences of the PC norm for group processes and group performance.

Abstract

Purpose – We investigate the antibias norm, “political correctness” (PC), and explore the consequences of the PC norm for group processes and group performance.

Methodology/approach – We define the term PC as it is used in public discourse and distinguish the PC norm from the related antibias norm of color blindness.

Findings – We suggest that the PC norm may play a unique role in reducing a critical type of uncertainty that would otherwise constrain performance, in particular, group creativity and decision making, in diverse work groups. We then explore the controversial argument that being politically incorrect can actually promote freedom of expression.

Originality/value of chapter – We conclude by reflecting on the costs of the PC norm and why the PC norm may remain prevalent in work groups for some time to come.

Details

Looking Back, Moving Forward: A Review of Group and Team-Based Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-030-7

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Corporate Fraud Exposed
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-418-8

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 19 September 2012

Abstract

Details

Looking Back, Moving Forward: A Review of Group and Team-Based Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-030-7

Article
Publication date: 21 April 2022

Andrew Franklin Johnson, Katherine J. Roberto, Christopher J. Hartwell and Jennifer F. Taylor

The social media (SM) engagement framework consists of dimensions of employee privacy expectations and organizations' social media orientation. Further, the social media…

Abstract

Purpose

The social media (SM) engagement framework consists of dimensions of employee privacy expectations and organizations' social media orientation. Further, the social media privacy orientation model provides better understanding of complexities of selection and retention created by the social media landscape.

Design/methodology/approach

Organizations are increasingly seeking talent to support burgeoning social media strategies. Qualified employees may be expected to have related professional experience and an active personal social media presence. In contrast to this evolving demand, prevailing guidelines suggest applicants minimize their social media activity altogether. These restrictive guidelines may be better suited for organizations that prefer or require high levels of discretion on social media given the differing engagement expectations across firms and among individuals.

Findings

How the congruence between an employee's expectations of privacy on SM and the organization's expectation of employees' SM usage affects applicant attraction to organizations and employee retention is outlined. Propositions are offered to foster research in this area.

Practical implications

Social media congruence is an important consideration for human resource (HR) policies and associated training.

Social implications

Public policies toward the use of social media in recruitment and privacy should consider social media congruence.

Originality/value

The model advanced in the paper provides organizations and applicants with a stronger understanding of the complexities surrounding the use of SM in selection and retention decisions.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/OIR-05-2021-0260

Details

Online Information Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 7 October 2019

As more and more people decide to commit their lives to print, autobiographies constitute a significant resource to explore stories of harm, violence and crime. Published…

Abstract

As more and more people decide to commit their lives to print, autobiographies constitute a significant resource to explore stories of harm, violence and crime. Published autobiography, however, presents a unique form of storytelling, unavoidably entailing the accumulation and (re)telling of a mass of stories; about oneself, others, contexts and cultures. Relatedly, paratexts – or the elements that surround the central text, such as covers, introductions and prologues – demonstrate how these texts are both individually and collectively shaped. Taking the co-constructed nature of all narratives, including self-narratives, as its starting point, this chapter seeks to demonstrate how terrorists who have authored autobiographies understand the world and their actions within it. In doing so, this chapter provides a practical demonstration of how insight derived from literary criticism can profitably be brought to bear in systematically breaking down and analysing an autobiography – that of a notable American jihadist, Omar Hammami – including its paratextual elements. In particular, I argue that considerations of genre, the inclusion of different types of events and stories collected from others all provide valuable strategies for the ‘doing’ of narrative criminology using autobiographies.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Narrative Criminology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-006-6

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 December 2019

Jennifer Chelsea Veres, Nathan Eva and Andrew Cavanagh

Drawing from the cognitive evaluation theory, the purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between student volunteers’ narcissism, Machiavellianism and…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing from the cognitive evaluation theory, the purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between student volunteers’ narcissism, Machiavellianism and psychopathy, and commitment to university volunteer programmes through the mediating mechanisms of self-orientation and pro-social motivation. Further, it investigates the roll of servant leadership in mitigating these personality types and encouraging student volunteers to become more pro-socially motivated.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses data collected via questionnaire from 156 student volunteers across Australia. Hypothesis testing was conducted using ordinary least squares regression with the path-analytic conditional process modelling (PROCESS) macro for SPSS.

Findings

The study’s analysis indicated that self-orientated motivation mediated the relationship between narcissism and normative commitment, and pro-social motivation mediated the relationship between both Machiavellianism and psychopathy, and affective commitment. Further, servant leadership was found to moderate the relationship between both Machiavellianism and psychopathy, and pro-social motivation, such that the negative relationship became weaker under a servant leader. These findings suggest that servant leaders play a significant role in encouraging “dark” personalities to see the light.

Originality/value

This research is the first to examine the use of the Dark Triad in a student volunteering context. It extends the cognitive evaluation theory by revealing that extrinsic (in contrast to intrinsic) motivations are “crowded out” as intrinsic (in contrast to extrinsic) motivations develop within individuals. The study also refines the social learning theory, by examining the influences of “positive” leadership attributes (servant leadership) on “darker” (Dark Triad) personalities.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 September 2010

Jennifer L. Harrison and Stephen J. Kelly

The purpose of this paper is to test the null hypothesis that there is no significant association between perceived environmental uncertainty (PEU) and a three component…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the null hypothesis that there is no significant association between perceived environmental uncertainty (PEU) and a three component conceptualisation of commitment.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from owner/managers of community pharmacy businesses in New South Wales, Australia, with 268 responses analysed by confirmatory factor analysis to test a measurement model for each construct and a structural model to test the paper's hypothesis.

Findings

The hypothesis was partially supported with results indicating that greater PEU is associated with lower instrumental and normative commitment. The association with affective commitment was more complex. No direct association with PEU was evident, however a standardised indirect effect was identified.

Research limitations/implications

The primary theoretical implications are that commitment in business‐to‐business channels is evidently affected by PEU, suggesting in part that PEU is likely to have a moderating effect on previously identified antecedents of commitment – including power, idiosyncratic investments, interdependence, trust, and conflict. For practitioners, the implications include the complication that PEU is a relative concept felt by various agents in a market to varying extents. As such, a supplier may benefit by maintaining a watching brief on PEU within a given channel and consider altering the channel strategy to either manage PEU and/or maintain commitment.

Originality/value

The findings provide original evidence that PEU is an antecedent of commitment with no other studies examining this relationship identified. The value lays both in the theoretical and practical implications highlighted in the paper.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

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