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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Jeffrey Tobias and Kay Eatern

63

Abstract

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Article
Publication date: 12 March 2014

Nathan Cowie, Marewa Glover and Dudley Gentles

Taxing tobacco is one of the most effective means to reduce smoking but concerns about the impact on poor smokers are a barrier. New Zealand resumed increasing tobacco…

2936

Abstract

Purpose

Taxing tobacco is one of the most effective means to reduce smoking but concerns about the impact on poor smokers are a barrier. New Zealand resumed increasing tobacco taxes in April 2010. The paper hypothesised smokers would attempt to stop smoking and/or adapt, changing their smoking behaviours in response to price increases. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a door knock survey of smokers and recent ex-smokers who were home when visited. Participants (n=428) were from socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods of Auckland with large proportions of Māori and Pacific Island people.

Findings

Many smokers (66 per cent) attempted to quit an average of 3 times. More than 40 per cent stopped for at least 24 hours without intending to quit altogether, monthly or more. Consumption reduced among 40 per cent of participants, by an average 7.1 cigarettes daily. More than a fifth of participants switched to cheaper brands. Switching from factory made cigarettes to roll your own tobacco (6 per cent) or vice versa (5 per cent) was uncommon.

Research limitations/implications

The method resulted in a low response rate. Tobacco tax is associated with reduced consumption and high levels of frequent quit attempts in socioeconomically deprived communities therefore our study supports tax increases as a means of reducing smoking.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to investigate the effect of large recent New Zealand tobacco tax increases on low-income smokers’ adaptive behaviours.

Details

Ethnicity and Inequalities in Health and Social Care, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0980

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 October 2019

Nicolas La Roche-Carrier, Guyh Dituba Ngoma, Yasar Kocaefe and Fouad Erchiqui

Reliability plays an important role in the execution of the maintenance improvement and the understanding of its concepts is essential to predict the type of maintenance…

Abstract

Purpose

Reliability plays an important role in the execution of the maintenance improvement and the understanding of its concepts is essential to predict the type of maintenance according to the equipment state. Thereby, a computational tool was developed and programming with VBA in Excel® for reliability and failure analysis in a mining context. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The developed approach use the modeling of stochastic processes, such as the renewal process, the non-homogeneous Poisson process and less conventional method as the Bayesian approach, by considering Jeffreys non-informative prior. The resolution gives the best associated model, the parameters estimation, the mean time between failure and the reliability estimate. This approach is validated with the reliability analysis of inter-failure times from underground rock bolters subsystems, over a two-year period.

Findings

Results show that Weibull and lognormal probability distribution fit to the most subsystems inter-failure times. The study revealed that the bolting head, the rock drill, the screen handler, the electric/electronic system, the hydraulic system, the drilling feeder and the structural consume the most repair frequency. The hydraulic and electric/electronic subsystems represent the lowest reliability after 50 operation hours.

Originality/value

For the first time, this case study defines practical failures and reliability information for rock bolter subsystems based on real operation data. This paper is useful to the comparative evaluation of rock bolter by detecting the weakest elements and understanding failure patterns in the individual observation subsystems on the overall machine performance.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 21 February 2008

Mingliang Li and Justin L. Tobias

We describe a new Bayesian estimation algorithm for fitting a binary treatment, ordered outcome selection model in a potential outcomes framework. We show how recent…

Abstract

We describe a new Bayesian estimation algorithm for fitting a binary treatment, ordered outcome selection model in a potential outcomes framework. We show how recent advances in simulation methods, namely data augmentation, the Gibbs sampler and the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm can be used to fit this model efficiently, and also introduce a reparameterization to help accelerate the convergence of our posterior simulator. Conventional “treatment effects” such as the Average Treatment Effect (ATE), the effect of treatment on the treated (TT) and the Local Average Treatment Effect (LATE) are adapted for this specific model, and Bayesian strategies for calculating these treatment effects are introduced. Finally, we review how one can potentially learn (or at least bound) the non-identified cross-regime correlation parameter and use this learning to calculate (or bound) parameters of interest beyond mean treatment effects.

Details

Modelling and Evaluating Treatment Effects in Econometrics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1380-8

Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2008

Arnold Zellner

After briefly reviewing the past history of Bayesian econometrics and Alan Greenspan's (2004) recent description of his use of Bayesian methods in managing policy-making…

Abstract

After briefly reviewing the past history of Bayesian econometrics and Alan Greenspan's (2004) recent description of his use of Bayesian methods in managing policy-making risk, some of the issues and needs that he mentions are discussed and linked to past and present Bayesian econometric research. Then a review of some recent Bayesian econometric research and needs is presented. Finally, some thoughts are presented that relate to the future of Bayesian econometrics.

Details

Bayesian Econometrics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-308-8

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Bruce Newbold and Marie McKeary

Based on a case study in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, the purpose of this paper is to explore the difficulties faced by local health care providers in the face of constantly…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on a case study in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, the purpose of this paper is to explore the difficulties faced by local health care providers in the face of constantly evolving refugee policies, programs, and arrivals. In doing so, it illustrates the complications faced by service providers in providing care to refugee arrivals and how the diversity of arrivals challenges health care provision and ultimately the health and well-being of refugees.

Design/methodology/approach

A series of semi-structured, in-depth interviews with key service professionals in both the social service and health fields in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, examined both health and health care issues.

Findings

Beyond challenges for service providers that have been previously flagged in the literature, including language barriers and the limited time that they have with their clients, analysis revealed that health care providers faced other challenges in providing care, with one challenge reflecting the difficulty of providing care and services to a diverse refugee population. A second challenge reflected the lack of knowledge associated with constantly evolving policies and programs. Both challenges potentially limit the abilities of care providers.

Research limitations/implications

On-going changes to refugee and health care policy, along with the diversity of refugee arrivals, will continue to challenge providers. The challenge, therefore, for health care providers and policy makers alike is how to ensure adequate service provision for new arrivals.

Practical implications

The Federal government should do a better job in disseminating the impact of policy changes and should streamline programs. This is particularly relevant given limited budgets and resources, tri-partite government funding, short time-frames to prepare for new arrivals, inadequate background information, barriers/challenges or inequitable criteria for access to health and social services, while addressing an increasingly diverse and complex population.

Social implications

The research reinforces the complexity of the needs and challenges faced by refugees when health is considered, and the difficulty in providing care to this group.

Originality/value

While there is a large refugee health literature, there is relatively little attention to the challenges and difficulties faced by service providers in addressing the health needs of the diverse refugee population, a topic that is particularly important given limited funding envelopes, shifting policies and programs, and a focus on clients (refugees). It is this latter piece – the challenges faced by providers in providing care to refugees – which this paper explores.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 January 2021

Jeffrey W. Alstete, John P. Meyer and Nicholas J. Beutell

The purpose of this study is to utilize an exploratory multiple-case design research method using three undergraduate management courses at a medium-sized private…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to utilize an exploratory multiple-case design research method using three undergraduate management courses at a medium-sized private comprehensive college near a large metropolitan area in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper explores differentiated instruction in relation to experiential learning in management education by examining three teaching applications from different management courses to illustrate these concepts.

Findings

The use of differentiated instruction in management education is supported through varied approaches such as individual student and team-based scaffolding that demonstrate the applicability of differentiation. In addition to improving student learning, other benefits include improved student retention and faculty autonomy in course creation and delivery. The implementation involves a proactive response to learner needs informed by a faculty perspective that recognizes student diversity yet retains quality assurance standards with mindful assessment and planning.

Research limitations/implications

The comparatively small number of courses and instructional methods may make the specific findings and examples more relevant to the type of institution examined. Yet, the general conclusions and methods identified have potential implications for learners in a wide variety of colleges and universities.

Practical implications

Differentiated instruction may be a useful approach for enhancing learning in heterogenous groups of students by recognizing student readiness and making appropriate modifications.

Originality/value

This paper offers an exploratory overview of differentiated instruction with guidance for management faculty members in designing and implementing these approaches in their courses.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Applying Maximum Entropy to Econometric Problems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-187-4

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 21 February 2008

Abstract

Details

Modelling and Evaluating Treatment Effects in Econometrics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1380-8

Book part
Publication date: 30 August 2019

Gary J. Cornwall, Jeffrey A. Mills, Beau A. Sauley and Huibin Weng

This chapter develops a predictive approach to Granger causality (GC) testing that utilizes k…

Abstract

This chapter develops a predictive approach to Granger causality (GC) testing that utilizes k -fold cross-validation and posterior simulation to perform out-of-sample testing. A Monte Carlo study indicates that the cross-validation predictive procedure has improved power in comparison to previously available out-of-sample testing procedures, matching the performance of the in-sample F-test while retaining the credibility of post- sample inference. An empirical application to the Phillips curve is provided evaluating the evidence on GC between inflation and unemployment rates.

Details

Topics in Identification, Limited Dependent Variables, Partial Observability, Experimentation, and Flexible Modeling: Part A
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-241-2

Keywords

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