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With the available technological tools, fans are able to access sport products regardless of geographic proximity. Through technology, fans can follow sports teams from…
With the available technological tools, fans are able to access sport products regardless of geographic proximity. Through technology, fans can follow sports teams from other countries. In contrast to previous research focused on the local fan, in this paper we report on a study of a group of distant fans – Chinese National Basketball Association (NBA) fans – as the focal object. The study was guided by three questions: RQ1: what motives drive a distant fan’s involvement with their favorite NBA team? RQ2: are there differences in the motives associated with the different stages of psychological connection among distant fans? RQ3: are there differences in the amount of media consumption at the different stages of psychological connection? The paper aims to discuss these issues.
An online survey was distributed to consumers of a Chinese sports message board to assess the motives of distant fans (n=281) following teams in the NBA, and strength of psychological connection to the NBA based on the psychological continuum model (PCM).
There were significant differences in the motives for following a distant NBA team among the respondents at different stages of psychological connection. Significant differences were also found among Chinese NBA fans at the respective stages regarding media consumption.
This study contributes to the advancement of knowledge regarding sport fandom. It is one of the first studies to include an assessment of the sport consumption motives of distant fans, more specifically, motives influencing Chinese fans’ consumption of the NBA. Utilizing the PCM allows for the segmentation of a specific fan population and to ascertain whether there are differences in the motives and behaviors associated with different stages of an individual’s psychological connection with a team.
This chapter focuses on how corporate entrepreneurs seize opportunities and deal with threats through resource acquisition, control, and use. When corporate entrepreneurs…
This chapter focuses on how corporate entrepreneurs seize opportunities and deal with threats through resource acquisition, control, and use. When corporate entrepreneurs fail to gain control of preferred resources they must rely on their ability to optimize their use of resources on hand in order to avoid the typical limitations inherent in a constrained set of resources. However, control of resources, whether existing or supplementary, by itself is an insufficient basis for influencing performance. Performance also depends on an organization’s capacity to deploy resources in combination with strategically important organizational processes to affect a desired end. The way in which corporate entrepreneurs utilize their resources is likely to have a more significant effect on performance than is merely having control of them. The current research aims to elaborate on how corporate entrepreneurs can become more resourceful by using a vacillation approach to resource acquisition and utilization. In this context, vacillation is movement between exploration and exploitation, or knowledge acquisition and knowledge integration from a knowledge management perspective. Vacillation is distinguished from the “balance” hypothesis prevalent in the organizational ambidexterity literature. A balance hypothesis states that both exploration and exploitation may be pursued simultaneously either by creating structural or contextual organizational ambidexterity. Here, we explain how vacillation enables an organization’s corporate entrepreneurship posture to lead to improved performance. In this chapter, we first describe the extant literature and construct relationships between corporate entrepreneurship posture, organizational resource level, vacillation, and organizational performance. We then analyze the learning processes associated with vacillation and discuss the research and managerial implications associated with the proposed relationships.
The prevalent approach to providing the Internet in rural areas of developing countries takes the form of ‘telecentres’, where, it is assumed that ‘access to’ this…
The prevalent approach to providing the Internet in rural areas of developing countries takes the form of ‘telecentres’, where, it is assumed that ‘access to’ this technology will confer benefits on the target groups. The purpose of this paper is to show that this approach diverts attention from the many variables that determine whether and to what extent, access is translated into well‐being. During this part of the paper we draw on Sen's analysis of the complex relationships between consumption and welfare. The second part of our critique is concerned to show that excessive concern with access, has led to the neglect of an alternative type of model in which knowledge rather than technology is the main concern.
This paper proposes a framework that focuses on instilling feelings of gratitude within consumers. Participant sports events are often funded largely by sponsorship…
This paper proposes a framework that focuses on instilling feelings of gratitude within consumers. Participant sports events are often funded largely by sponsorship revenues, and their consumer base is considered to represent an identifiably unique market. These conditions are argued to be favourable for integrating a gratitude framework. A model is presented that depicts gratitude as a mediating mechanism within a reciprocal relationship between the sponsor and the consumers. It includes purchase intentions as the behavioural outcome of gratitude. The findings suggest that incorporating feelings of gratitude may prove to be advantageous for potential sponsors within the participant sports industry.
If information technology (IT) is to have a mass impact on those living in rural areas of developing countries, it cannot occur on the basis of ownership (as it does in rich countries). Instead, it is to institutional innovations in and for developing countries, that one needs to look at. Two basic forms of innovation are identified: one which allows use of IT without ownership and the other which permits the benefits of IT to reach those who make no individual use of it. Either way, however, successful institutional innovations require a thicket of interactions between local actors, rather than interventions from foreign agencies (at least in the initial phase). Three case studies were used to illustrate these components of what I feel is an emerging paradigm of IT and rural development.
Throughout this study, the authors sought to identify the antecedents and consequences of a multi-dimensional consumption-value construct. Data were collected from sports…
Throughout this study, the authors sought to identify the antecedents and consequences of a multi-dimensional consumption-value construct. Data were collected from sports spectators in Japan (n=372) and the United States (n=396). The results indicate that three quality dimensions (functional, technical and aesthetic quality) have a significant impact on their respective value dimensions in the context of sporting events. Moreover, the constructs of entertainment and community prestige have positive effects on customers' behavioural intentions.
– The purpose of this paper is to test Oliver’s two-dimension (fortitude and community/social support) product loyalty framework.
The purpose of this paper is to test Oliver’s two-dimension (fortitude and community/social support) product loyalty framework.
Oliver categorized each of the two dimensions into high and low, creating a two-by-two framework: low fortitude and low-community/social support (Product Superiority group); low fortitude and high-community/social support (Village Envelopment group); high fortitude and low-community/social support (Determined Self-isolation group); high fortitude and high-community/social support (Immersed Self-identity group). The paper uses two samples. The sample from Study 1 was season ticket holders (n=199) of a West Coast (USA) Major League Baseball team. Results indicated preliminary support for Oliver’s four groups and good psychometric properties of the fan community scale and the individual fortitude scale (IFS). Study 2 focussed on attendees (n=458) at two East Coast (USA) Major League Baseball venues.
The multivariate GLM indicated significant differences among Oliver’s groups, but the variance explained was small on past, current, and future attendance. However, in terms of actual games attended, the Immersed Self-identity group attended between 2.5 and 3 times as many games as the Village Envelopment group over the two years, and more than twice as many games as the Product Superiority group. The groups differed substantially on consumption of product extensions: 22.5 percent of the variance in merchandise purchasing was explained by the grouping, 31.9 percent of broadcast media consumption, and 24.9 percent of print media consumption. In all cases, those in the Immersed Self-identity group consumed significantly more than the Product Superiority and Determined Self-isolation groups.
The paper reveals that sport marketers can focus on the Immersed Self-identity segment as the segment most likely to consume the product, repurchase, and purchase product extensions.
Internal marketing is an important approach for fostering a service‐ and customer‐oriented culture in an organization. A critical component of internal marketing is the…
Internal marketing is an important approach for fostering a service‐ and customer‐oriented culture in an organization. A critical component of internal marketing is the provision of internal service quality. While researchers have conducted studies of internal service quality, there has been no general agreement on the measurement of the concept. Work to date has attempted to use the SERVQUAL instrument as a tool for measuring internal service quality. Researchers have not, however, demonstrated that the instrument can be reasonably modified to measure internal service quality. The current study modified the SERVQUAL instrument for a service setting and empirically tested and confirmed that it is appropriate for measuring internal service quality. While previous research has not confirmed the validity and reliability of all five SERVQUAL dimensions in a service setting, the results of the current study confirmed that all five dimensions – reliability, assurance, tangibles, empathy, responsiveness – were distinct and conceptually clear.