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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 25 April 2019

Elizabeth E. Richard, Jeffrey R. Davis, Jin H. Paik and Karim R. Lakhani

This paper presents NASA’s experience using a Center of Excellence (CoE) to scale and sustain an open innovation program as an effective problem-solving tool and includes…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents NASA’s experience using a Center of Excellence (CoE) to scale and sustain an open innovation program as an effective problem-solving tool and includes strategic management recommendations for other organizations based on lessons learned.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper defines four phases of implementing an open innovation program: Learn, Pilot, Scale and Sustain. It provides guidance on the time required for each phase and recommendations for how to utilize a CoE to succeed. Recommendations are based upon the experience of NASA’s Human Health and Performance Directorate, and experience at the Laboratory for Innovation Science at Harvard running hundreds of challenges with research and development organizations.

Findings

Lessons learned include the importance of grounding innovation initiatives in the business strategy, assessing the portfolio of work to select problems most amenable to solving via crowdsourcing methodology, framing problems that external parties can solve, thinking strategically about early wins, selecting the right platforms, developing criteria for evaluation, and advancing a culture of innovation. Establishing a CoE provides an effective infrastructure to address both technical and cultural issues.

Originality/value

The NASA experience spanned more than seven years from initial learnings about open innovation concepts to the successful scaling and sustaining of an open innovation program; this paper provides recommendations on how to decrease this timeline to three years.

Details

Strategy & Leadership, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1087-8572

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 August 2021

Shahzad Shabbir, Muhammad Adnan Ayub, Farman Ali Khan and Jeffrey Davis

Short-term motivation encompasses specific, challenging and attainable goals that develop in the limited timespan. On the other hand, long-term motivation indicates a sort of…

Abstract

Purpose

Short-term motivation encompasses specific, challenging and attainable goals that develop in the limited timespan. On the other hand, long-term motivation indicates a sort of continuing commitment that is required to complete assigned task. As short-term motivational problems span for a limited period of time, such as a session, therefore, they need to be addressed in real time to keep the learner engaged in the learning process. Similarly, long-term learners’ motivation plays an equally important role to retain the learner in the long run and minimize the risk of dropout. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to incorporate a comprehensive learner motivation model that is based on short-term and long-term aspects of the learners' motivation. This approach enables Web-based educational systems to identify the real-time motivational state of the learner and provide personalized interventions to keep the learners engaged in learning process.

Design/methodology/approach

Recent research regarding personalized Web-based educational systems demonstrates learner’s motivation to be an essential component of the learning model. This is because of the fact that low motivation results in either students’ less engagement or complete drop out from the learning activities. A learner motivation model is considered to be a set of perceptions and beliefs that the system has developed about a learner. This includes both short-term and long-term motivations of leaners.

Findings

This study proposed a framework of a domain independent learners’ motivation model based on firm educational theories. The proposed framework consists of two modules. The primary module deals with real-time identification of motivation and logging off activities such as login, forum participation and adherence to assessment deadline. Secondary module maintains the profile of leaners associated with both short-term and long-term motivation. A study was conducted to verify the impact of learners’ motivation model and personalized interventional strategies based on proposed model, using Systematical Information Education Method assessment standards. The results show an increase in motivational index and the characteristics associated with motivation during the conducted study.

Originality/value

Motivational diagnosis is important for both traditional classrooms and Web-based education systems. It is one of the major elements that contribute in the success of the learning process. However, dropout rate among online students is very high, which leads to incorporate motivational elements in more personalized way because motivated students will retain the course until they successfully complete it. Hence, identifying learner’s motivation, updating learners’ motivation model based on this identification and providing personalized interventions are the key for the success of Web-based educational systems.

Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2020

Gregori Galofré-Vilà

In this chapter, network analysis has been used to map out disciplinary areas of research and authorship in economic history. A total of 5,330 peer-reviewed articles published in…

Abstract

In this chapter, network analysis has been used to map out disciplinary areas of research and authorship in economic history. A total of 5,330 peer-reviewed articles published in the leading economic history journals has been surveyed. Since 1980, the number of publications has risen and then rapidly accelerated over the last 2 decades. This rise has been fueled by research being conducted within European universities instead of US or UK ones.

Details

Research in Economic History
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-179-7

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 17 June 2019

Robert M. Randall

355

Abstract

Details

Strategy & Leadership, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1087-8572

Content available
Article
Publication date: 17 June 2019

Larry Goodson

352

Abstract

Details

Strategy & Leadership, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1087-8572

Book part
Publication date: 22 August 2014

Alisa G. Brink, Eric Gooden and Meha Kohli Mishra

There has been much discussion regarding the necessity of moving away from precise (rules-based) standards toward less precise (principles-based) standards. This study examines…

Abstract

There has been much discussion regarding the necessity of moving away from precise (rules-based) standards toward less precise (principles-based) standards. This study examines the impact of the proposed shift by using a controlled experiment to evaluate the influence of rule precision and information ambiguity on reporting decisions in the presence of monetary incentives to report aggressively. Using motivated reasoning theory as a framework, we predict that the malleability inherent in both rule precision and information ambiguity amplify biased reasoning in a manner that is consistent with individuals’ pecuniary incentives. In contrast, consistent with research exploring ambiguity aversion we predict that high levels of ambiguity will actually attenuate aggressive reporting. Our results support these predictions. Specifically, we find an interactive effect between rule precision and information ambiguity on self-interested reporting decisions at moderate levels of ambiguity. However, consistent with ambiguity aversion, we find decreased self-interested reporting decisions at high levels of ambiguity relative to moderate ambiguity. This study should be of interest to preparers, auditors, and regulators who are interested in identifying situations which amplify and diminish aggressive reporting.

Details

Advances in Accounting Behavioral Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-445-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 October 2019

V.K. Narayanan

Article explains that institutional knowledge is crucial to the effectiveness of an organization because it enables it to reduce the time and effort needed to explore a novel…

Abstract

Purpose

Article explains that institutional knowledge is crucial to the effectiveness of an organization because it enables it to reduce the time and effort needed to explore a novel challenge.

Design/methodology/approach

Article tells how to access institutional knowledge and how to foster a culture that respects it.

Findings

A supportive culture makes the sharing of institutional knowledge a normal facet of organizational functioning, thereby enabling managers to be highly effective when they have to deal with challenges and opportunities outside their normal routine.

Practical implications

When an organization is threatened by unexpected crises, senior personnel who have gone through previous disasters, can be tapped for some valuable insights into ways of handling the matter quickly and appropriately.

Originality/value

A useful “how-to” guide for integrating institutional knowledge into project management, crisis management, and novel innovation and marketing initiatives.

Details

Strategy & Leadership, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1087-8572

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2018

Sean M. Davis, Jeffrey M. Coy and Fernando Guillen Solis

High short interest is associated with overvaluation, and the purpose of this paper is to find contradictions to the commonly held “overvaluation hypothesis” when merger and…

Abstract

Purpose

High short interest is associated with overvaluation, and the purpose of this paper is to find contradictions to the commonly held “overvaluation hypothesis” when merger and acquisition (M&A) targets are examined. This paper extends the work of Ben-David et al. (2015), who confirm high short interest indicates overvaluation when focused on acquiring firms.

Design/methodology/approach

Short interest is examined as a predictor of acquisition likelihood using longitudinal data for US firms from 2003 to 2013. How short interest impacts the premiums paid by acquiring firms is examined with target, acquirer and deal characteristics.

Findings

M&A targets have high short interest and short interest increases acquisition likelihood, suggesting undervaluation. Highly shorted firms also experience outsized reductions in share price prior to merger announcements, and the premiums paid are also significantly predicted by short interest levels.

Research limitations/implications

Short selling activity can be motivated for reasons other than overvaluation, and many short positions can be held for long periods before they are closed, leading to high short interest levels for extended periods. Therefore, investors and researchers are cautioned that high short interest levels may exist in stocks that have already declined in price and could be poised for a reversal.

Originality/value

This study adds to the growing body of work indicating that short interest might not be the signal of overvaluation most researchers accept it to be.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 44 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 7 October 2015

Azizah Ahmad

The strategic management literature emphasizes the concept of business intelligence (BI) as an essential competitive tool. Yet the sustainability of the firms’ competitive…

Abstract

The strategic management literature emphasizes the concept of business intelligence (BI) as an essential competitive tool. Yet the sustainability of the firms’ competitive advantage provided by BI capability is not well researched. To fill this gap, this study attempts to develop a model for successful BI deployment and empirically examines the association between BI deployment and sustainable competitive advantage. Taking the telecommunications industry in Malaysia as a case example, the research particularly focuses on the influencing perceptions held by telecommunications decision makers and executives on factors that impact successful BI deployment. The research further investigates the relationship between successful BI deployment and sustainable competitive advantage of the telecommunications organizations. Another important aim of this study is to determine the effect of moderating factors such as organization culture, business strategy, and use of BI tools on BI deployment and the sustainability of firm’s competitive advantage.

This research uses combination of resource-based theory and diffusion of innovation (DOI) theory to examine BI success and its relationship with firm’s sustainability. The research adopts the positivist paradigm and a two-phase sequential mixed method consisting of qualitative and quantitative approaches are employed. A tentative research model is developed first based on extensive literature review. The chapter presents a qualitative field study to fine tune the initial research model. Findings from the qualitative method are also used to develop measures and instruments for the next phase of quantitative method. The study includes a survey study with sample of business analysts and decision makers in telecommunications firms and is analyzed by partial least square-based structural equation modeling.

The findings reveal that some internal resources of the organizations such as BI governance and the perceptions of BI’s characteristics influence the successful deployment of BI. Organizations that practice good BI governance with strong moral and financial support from upper management have an opportunity to realize the dream of having successful BI initiatives in place. The scope of BI governance includes providing sufficient support and commitment in BI funding and implementation, laying out proper BI infrastructure and staffing and establishing a corporate-wide policy and procedures regarding BI. The perceptions about the characteristics of BI such as its relative advantage, complexity, compatibility, and observability are also significant in ensuring BI success. The most important results of this study indicated that with BI successfully deployed, executives would use the knowledge provided for their necessary actions in sustaining the organizations’ competitive advantage in terms of economics, social, and environmental issues.

This study contributes significantly to the existing literature that will assist future BI researchers especially in achieving sustainable competitive advantage. In particular, the model will help practitioners to consider the resources that they are likely to consider when deploying BI. Finally, the applications of this study can be extended through further adaptation in other industries and various geographic contexts.

Details

Sustaining Competitive Advantage Via Business Intelligence, Knowledge Management, and System Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-764-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 March 2010

Donald Palmer

This chapter attempts to explain why the community of scholars at Stanford University generated an unparalleled amount of highly influential theory and research on organizations…

Abstract

This chapter attempts to explain why the community of scholars at Stanford University generated an unparalleled amount of highly influential theory and research on organizations in the last three decades of the 20th century.1

Details

Stanford's Organization Theory Renaissance, 1970–2000
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-930-5

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