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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Julia Bullard

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of warrant in daily classification design in general and in negotiating disparate classification goals in particular.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of warrant in daily classification design in general and in negotiating disparate classification goals in particular.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper synthesizes classification research on forms of warrant and uses examples of classification decisions from ethnographic engagement with designers to illustrate how forms of warrant interact in daily classification decisions.

Findings

Different forms of warrant, though associated with incompatible theories of classification design, coexist in daily classification decisions. A secondary warrant might be employed to augment the primary warrant of a system, such as to decide among equally valid terms, or to overturn a decision based on the primary warrant, such as when ethical impacts are prioritized above user preference.

Research limitations/implications

This paper calls for empirical research using the application of warrant as an object of analysis.

Originality/value

The paper connects a ubiquitous and observable element of classification design – the application of warrant – to longstanding divisions in classification theory. This paper demonstrates how the analysis of daily classification design can illuminate the interaction between disparate philosophies of classification.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 73 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2011

Eric Rosenblum, Martina Davis, Marianna Grossman, Drew Clark, Jim Davis and Jeff Risberg

South Bay Water Recycling (SBWR) is a regional recycled water distribution system serving industrial and commercial customers in the area of northern California (USA…

Abstract

South Bay Water Recycling (SBWR) is a regional recycled water distribution system serving industrial and commercial customers in the area of northern California (USA) known as "Silicon Valley." In early 2008 the City of San José, as administering agency of the San José/Santa Clara Water Pollution Control Plant, implemented a Cooling Tower Initiative to encourage recycled water use by commercial and industrial facilities. In 2009, Sustainable Silicon Valley, a non-profit organization dedicated to a sustainable future, convened a meeting of utilities, high-tech and academics to discuss how local stakeholders might collaborate to improve the sustainable use of water in Silicon Valley. Out of these discussions emerged the concept of the EcoCloud™, a coalition of private companies, public utilities, environmental organizations and academic researchers who encourage each other to adopt sustainable practices, supported by the latest social networking and data analysis tools. While the initial focus of the EcoCloud™ is to help industrial facilities use water sustainably—especially by using recycled water for cooling—its long-term goal is to support all aspects of sustainability, including energy reduction, materials management and land use. The EcoCloud™ allowed the City of San José to move from a serial marketing to a group marketing model, reaching more potential customers and connecting more facilities to the recycled water system.

Inspired by the concept of industrial ecology, the EcoCloud™ is designed to be a "virtual" industrial ecosystem where industry, government and educational institutions can work together to share information about all aspects of sustainability. Although industries in the EcoCloud™ are not located next to each other, they share a common interest in reducing energy usage, conserving resources, eliminating waste, and cutting costs to improve their bottom line. Just as "cloud computing" uses the distributed power of the internet for more efficient data processing, the EcoCloud™ harnesses the power of web-based social networking tools so local business leaders and facility managers can work with industry experts, technology innovators, university researchers and government agencies to make their enterprises more sustainable and more profitable.

Details

International Journal of Innovation Science, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-2223

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Book part
Publication date: 19 October 2012

David D. Franks and Jeff Davis

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to be as comprehensive as possible about what is known about mirror neurons at this time.Design/methodology/approach – This…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to be as comprehensive as possible about what is known about mirror neurons at this time.

Design/methodology/approach – This chapter offers a comprehensive critique including Churchland's hesitations about findings on mirror neurons (2011) which are balanced by Ramachandran's conviction that much of the research on mirror neurons is valid (2011). Following this is a summary of the results of the Mirror Neuron Forum (2011) wherein leading mirror neuron researchers exchange their views and conclusions about this subject.

Findings – The few single cells measures that we have show that they are much wider distributed throughout the brain than we have previously imagined. It should be stressed that single measures of mirror neurons have occurred albeit in limited situations. This establishes once and for all their relevance to humans.

Originality/value – The work on mirror neurons is a critical contribution from neuroscience to bringing the social brain into sociology and refining our understandings of intersubjectivity and of our biologically driven connections with others.

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2006

Ann Edwards

Abstract

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2011

Robert C. Ford and Peter B. Petersen

Entrepreneurship is increasingly recognized as vital for economies to grow and survive in an increasingly competitive world. Studying the critical success factors of…

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurship is increasingly recognized as vital for economies to grow and survive in an increasingly competitive world. Studying the critical success factors of entrepreneurial activity is and will continue to be a primary scholarly interest. Factors that have been identified in current times as critical to the success of entrepreneurs can even be seen in the actions of an entrepreneur in nineteenth‐century America. This paper seeks to use historical evidence about the career of Henry B. Plant to illustrate the application of those key factors and to expand knowledge of customer networks in entrepreneurial success.

Design/methodology/approach

The recent Kauffman study of successful entrepreneurs identifies 12 characteristics that are associated with their success. Clustered into three groupings in descending order of importance they are: work experience and previous success, management team, and luck; professional and personal networks, university education, and availability of venture capital funding; geographic location, advice from investors, alumni networks, and state and/or regional assistance. Consequently, this article examines the career of Henry B. Plant to provide additional historical evidence for the Kauffman study's classification of critical characteristics of successful entrepreneurs. Moreover, it illustrates the value of strong ties in a customers network as a valued resource for entrepreneurs.

Findings

Henry B. Plant was an entrepreneurial pioneer and a visionary leader. Singlehandedly, he made Tampa, Florida by building the railroad to it. His strategy of opening up the state with an integrated rail and ship system necessitated thinking through the interconnections of different modes of transportation, tying together schedules, and making it possible to move people and goods from New York to Havana. By examining Henry B. Plant examples of how he used key success factors, similar to those in Kauffman's study, to create and develop his entrepreneurial efforts can be found. Moreover, his ability to create strong ties with his customer network created a valuable and unique resource in his entrepreneurial success.

Originality/value

While many studies of entrepreneurs focus on the twentieth and twenty‐first centuries, an example from the nineteenth century remains of value in understanding the key drivers of entrepreneurial success. This is particularly true for Plant who showed that by carefully creating and maintaining strong ties with a customer network he could provide his enterprise with a valuable and unique resource that was a major contributor to his success as an entrepreneur.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

Abstract

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Book part
Publication date: 19 October 2012

Abstract

Details

Biosociology and Neurosociology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-257-8

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Book part
Publication date: 19 October 2012

Will Kalkhoff, Shane R. Thye and Edward J. Lawler

This volume begins with two chapters that draw on evolutionary sociology to advance our understanding of interpersonal processes and their role in social organization. In…

Abstract

This volume begins with two chapters that draw on evolutionary sociology to advance our understanding of interpersonal processes and their role in social organization. In “The Biology and Neurology of Group Processes,” Jonathan H. Turner and Alexandra Maryanski draw on three areas of evolutionary sociology (cladistic analysis, comparative neuroanatomy, and ecological analysis) to show how understanding the selection pressures acting on the brain over millions of years can help us get a better grasp on the biologically based capacities and propensities that are involved in group processes such as role-taking and role-making. An improved understanding of these processes means better explanations of how humans create, sustain, and change social structures and culture – topics that lie at the core of sociological inquiry. At the same time, Turner and Maryanski's chapter will give sociologists much to think about and debate, as one of the main conclusions of their argument is that neurology explains human capacities to develop non-kin groups more than culture. The next chapter entitled “Sacrifice, Gratitude, and Obligation: Serial Reciprocity in Early Christianity,” by Richard Machalek and Michael W. Martin, may be seen as giving more equal explanatory weight to culture and biology in a theoretical analysis that combines a focus on cognitive processes (historically unique meanings and ideas) with evolutionary sociological insights about emotions in order to generate better explanations of complex socio-historical developments. Specifically, Machalek and Martin extend Rodney Stark's analysis of how ideas contributed to the rise of Christianity by showing how the evolved features of human emotionality related to “paying it forward” (or serial reciprocity in more formal terms) may have also played an important role in this historical process. Both chapters provide excellent examples of the value of combining multiple theoretical perspectives and paying attention to the interplay of social and biological forces.

Details

Biosociology and Neurosociology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-257-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1996

Susan S. Lazinger and Judith Levi

As the only country in the world in which Hebrew is the official language, Israel found it necessary to develop software enabling its research library catalogs from the…

Abstract

As the only country in the world in which Hebrew is the official language, Israel found it necessary to develop software enabling its research library catalogs from the outset to handle two alphabets—Hebrew (including Yiddish and Ladino) and Roman characters. Starting in 1981, ALEPH, Israel's research library network, utilized locally developed software that could provide both a Hebrew and Roman mode. However, since the nation's research libraries had large collections in Arabic and Cyrillic languages, an urgent need arose for a system that could also handle Arabic and Cyrillic materials. This led to the development of soft fonts, software instead of the hardware‐based Hebrew‐English solution that was incorporated in ALEPH's earlier versions. The soft fonts can display on any VT320 or upwardly compatible terminal in Roman‐alphabet, Hebrew, Arabic, and Cyrillic. Furthermore, in the Hebrew and Arabic modes, the language of communication with the computer (commands, HELP, and so on) are also in the vernacular. This article focuses on some of the problems and solutions involved in developing ALEPH's multi‐script, bi‐directional system.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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