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Discusses the creation of self‐directed teams in the service industry in a bid to improve processing time, reduce the number of “hand‐offs” and create more interesting customer‐focused jobs for employees. Explores the definition of a self‐directed team, and reviews service organizations which use them. Questions the merits of system and provides three factors for consideration ‐ interdependence, supportive culture and management skill and willingness. Gives a structure for redesigning service organizations into self‐directed teams, and suggests that, when working efficiently, this system can revolutionize the workplace by providing a faster service for customers and greater job satisfaction for employees.
Much of the research about groups in organizations has been framed around traditional work groups with features such as work that is done in the same place, at the same…
Much of the research about groups in organizations has been framed around traditional work groups with features such as work that is done in the same place, at the same time, for the same organization. These features and related assumptions have shaped our theories and research about groups. This chapter first presents a framework for distinguishing between traditional and new forms of groups and then offers arguments about why our theories and research strategies must change as we move from groups with traditional features to new forms of work groups. This basic thesis is illustrated by examining the concept of socialization. We argue that traditional socialization mechanisms may not apply to new forms of work groups, and we introduce the concept of “substitutes for socialization” to explain the socialization processes in these new groups.
Multicultural teams (MCTs) and their managers are subject to numerous exogenous forces that profoundly affect how these teams’ members relate, what their difficulties are…
Multicultural teams (MCTs) and their managers are subject to numerous exogenous forces that profoundly affect how these teams’ members relate, what their difficulties are, and how they interact with task, technology and the larger organization(s) around them. We approach such teams from a multi-level perspective, focusing on global business culture, industry situation, and national political context as macro forces affecting these teams. We explain how these factors affect team functioning through the centripetal and centrifugal forces that they exert on individuals. Our perspective will acknowledge the complex reality of social construction among team members, and offer the view that members’ expectations and their mutual interactions are responsible for shaping each other's subsequent cognitions.
Bindu Aryais currently a doctoral student in International Business and Strategy at the University of Texas at Dallas. Her dissertation will empirically investigate how collaborative efforts between for-profit, not-for-profit and governmental agencies facilitate outcomes and can function to enhance sustainable development. Her research on how social networks facilitate organizational and group decision-making processes and outcomes has appeared in Journal of Management (forthcoming).
Increasing consumer consultation is a priority for those involved in health and social care research and practice, with promoting greater public participation being widely…
Increasing consumer consultation is a priority for those involved in health and social care research and practice, with promoting greater public participation being widely accepted as ‘a good thing’ (Reason, 1994: 3). However, whilst such consultation may improve the quality of research and practice, there is a need to recognise the considerable investment of time and energy that is required for success (Baxter et al., 2001). Given the extra resources needed, it is important to understand how consultation and user involvement can work to benefit all parties.This paper describes our experiences of working together on a research project exploring people's involvement in decision‐making processes when using care services in later life. When we started the project in March 2001 each of us could draw on a range of experiences that we hoped would make a valuable contribution. We have now worked together for over two years and this paper describes how our combined efforts have not only enhanced the overall quality of the research but also had personal benefits that we did not anticipate when we started out.
This research proposes and evaluates hypotheses about patterns of communication in a multi‐party, multi‐issue negotiation. Data were from 36 four‐person groups. We found…
This research proposes and evaluates hypotheses about patterns of communication in a multi‐party, multi‐issue negotiation. Data were from 36 four‐person groups. We found that the majority of groups initiated negotiations with a distributive phase and ended with an integrative phase—strong support for Morley and Stephenson's (1979) rational model of negotiation. We identified transitions between both strategic orientations (integration, distribution) and strategic functions (action, information), but found that the first transition was more likely to result in a change of orientation than of function and that negotiators were more likely to change either orientation or function (single transition) than to change both aspects of the negotiation simultaneously (double transition). Finally, we determined that negotiators used process and closure strategies to interrupt distributive phases and redirect negotiations to an integrative phase.