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Article
Publication date: 7 February 2018

Jeanie Wills

This paper aims to examine how women working in the advertising industry during the 1920s and 1930s encouraged and resisted stereotypes about women to establish a professional…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine how women working in the advertising industry during the 1920s and 1930s encouraged and resisted stereotypes about women to establish a professional identity. This seemingly paradoxical approach provided women with opportunities for professional development and network building. Dorothy Dignam is presented as a case study of one such advertising woman. She was a market researcher, a teacher, an advocate for women’s employment in advertising, a historian of women’s advertising clubs and a supporter of and a contributor to women’s professional networking.

Design/methodology/approach

Archival material is drawn from the N. W. Ayer and Son archives at the Smithsonian Institute, the Advertising Women of New York archives and the Dorothy Dignam Papers at the Schlesinger Library, the Philadelphia Club of Advertising Women papers at Bryn Mawr, the Dignam Collection at the Wisconsin Historical Society and the Women’s Advertising Club of Chicago (WACC) archives at the University of Illinois, Chicago. A close reading method of analysis places the material in a historical context. Additionally, it provides a narrative structure to demonstrate the complementary relationship between advertising club work and professional identity.

Findings

Dignam’s career strategies helped her to construct a professional identity that situated her as a guide, teacher and role model for other women who worked in advertising. She supported and created an attitude that enabled aspiring career women to embark on their careers, and she assisted in creating a coalition of women who empowered each other through their advertising club work.

Practical implications

Dignam’s published work about careers for women in advertising, her own career and its advancement and her involvement with women’s advertising clubs all served a rhetorical purpose. Her professional life sought to change both men’s and women’s attitudes about the impact of women in professional roles. In turn, the influence of attitudes helped to create space for women in business, especially those seeking advertising careers.

Originality/value

This paper illustrates how Dignam’s career, accomplishments and publications coalesce to provide evidence of how women negotiated professional identities and claimed space for themselves in the business world and in the advertising industry.

Article
Publication date: 19 May 2020

Jeanie Wills and Krystl Raven

This paper uses archival documents to begin to recover a history of women’s leadership in the advertising industry. In particular, this paper aims to identify the leadership…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper uses archival documents to begin to recover a history of women’s leadership in the advertising industry. In particular, this paper aims to identify the leadership styles of the first five presidents of the New York League of Advertising Women’s (NYLAW) club. Their leadership from 1912 to 1926 set the course for and influenced the culture of the New York League. These five women laid the foundations of a social club that would also contribute to the professionalization of women in advertising, building industry networks for women, forging leadership and mentorship links among women, providing advertising education exclusively for women and, finally, bolstering women’s status in all avenues of advertising. The first five presidents were, of course, different characters, but each exhibited the traits associated with “transformational leaders,” leaders who prepare the “demos” for their own leadership roles. The women’s styles converged with their situational context to give birth to a women’s advertising club that, like most clubs, did charity work and hosted social events, but which was developed by the first five presidents to give women the same kinds of professional opportunities as the advertising men’s clubs provided their membership. The first five presidents of the Advertising League had strong prior professional credibility because of the careers they had constructed for themselves among the men who dominated the advertising field in the first decade of the 20th century. As presidents of the NYLAW, they advocated for better jobs, equal rights at work and better pay for women working in the advertising industry.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper draws on women’s advertising archival material from the Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe and Wisconsin Historical Society to argue that the five founding mothers of the NYLAW provided what can best be described as transformational feminist leadership, which resulted in building an effective club for their members and setting it on a trajectory of advocacy and education that would benefit women in the advertising industry for the next several decades. These women did not refer to themselves as “leaders,” they probably would not have considered their work in organizing the New York club an exercise in leadership, nor might they have called themselves feminists or seen their club as a haven for feminist work. However, by using modern leadership theories, the study can gain insight into how these women instantiated feminist ideals through a transformational leadership paradigm. Thus, the historical documents provide insight into the leadership roles and styles of some of the first women working in American advertising in the early parts of the 20th century.

Findings

Archival documents from the women’s advertising clubs can help us to understand women’s leadership practices and to reconstruct a history of women’s leadership in the advertising industry. Eight years before women in America could vote, the first five presidents shared with the club their wealth of collective experience – over two decades worth – as advertising managers, copywriters and space buyers. The first league presidents oversaw the growth of an organization would benefit both women and the advertising industry when they proclaimed that the women’s clubs would “improve the level of taste, ethics and knowledge throughout the communications industry by example, education and dissemination of information” (Dignam, 1952, p. 9). In addition, the club structure gave ad-women a collective voice which emerged through its members’ participation in building the club and through the rallying efforts of transformational leaders.

Social implications

Historically, the advertising industry in the USA has been “pioneered” by male industry leaders such as Claude Hopkins, Albert Lasker and David Ogilvy. However, when the authors look to archival documents, it was found that women have played leadership roles in the industry too. Drawing on historical methodology, this study reconstructs a history of women’s leadership in the advertising and marketing industries.

Originality/value

This paper helps to understand how women participated in leadership roles in the advertising industry, which, in turn, enabled other women to build careers in the industry.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1995

Jeanie M. Welch

One of the newest crimes to be put on the books is stalking, usually defined as repeatedly being in the presence of another person with the intent to cause emotional distress or…

Abstract

One of the newest crimes to be put on the books is stalking, usually defined as repeatedly being in the presence of another person with the intent to cause emotional distress or bodily harm after being warned or requested not to do so. Stalking must be done over a period of time to indicate a pattern or continuity of purpose. Threats against a person or person's family may be stated or implied in stalking. Stalking victims are followed and harassed at work, at school, and at home. Stalking can also be done electronically, either using computers to send harassing e‐mail messages or by jamming telefacsimile machines with unwanted transmissions. There have been numerous high‐profile stalking cases that gained a great deal of publicity and focused attention on stalking. “Celebrity stalking” cases came to the public's attention in 1982 when actress Theresa Saldana was stabbed by a stalker. In 1989 actress Rebecca Schaeffer was shot and killed by a man who had stalked her for two years. In the 1990s the assault on skater Nancy Kerrigan, television talk shows and movies, and nonfiction works on stalking, including cases that ended with the death of the stalking victim, have focused public attention on this issue.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

Article
Publication date: 21 May 2018

Akiko Kamimura, Jeanie Ashby, Maziar Nourian, Nushean Assasnik, Jason Chen, Jennifer Tabler, Guadalupe Aguilera, Natalie Blanton, Allison Jess and Justine Reel

Little is known about low-income immigrant parents’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL) associated with their parenting. The purpose of this paper is to examine low-income…

Abstract

Purpose

Little is known about low-income immigrant parents’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL) associated with their parenting. The purpose of this paper is to examine low-income immigrant parents’ HRQoL, depression and stress.

Design/methodology/approach

In the spring of 2015, English speaking and Spanish speaking low-income uninsured immigrant parents utilizing a free clinic (N=182) completed a self-administered survey using standardized measures of parental HRQoL, stress and depression.

Findings

Immigrant parents’ HRQoL related to parenting was lower than general primary care patients. Higher levels of depression and stress were associated with lower levels of parental HRQoL and family functioning. Spanish speakers were significantly more likely to worry about their child’s health or future compared to English speakers.

Originality/value

While both English and Spanish speaking immigrant parents may need assistance addressing the health-related needs of their child, Spanish speakers may be a target audience for outreach programs. It is possible that by improving the health of their child, immigrant parents may see improvement in their own HRQoL and reductions in their levels of stress and depression. Future research should develop parenting classes for low-income immigrant parents targeting the potential health needs of their children, and assess the efficacy of the classes in improving child health and parental HRQoL.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Mary Ann Littrell, James M. Nyce, Jeanie Straub and Mindy Whipple

To report on the findings obtained through a field study in information infrastructure of rural areas of Romania.

568

Abstract

Purpose

To report on the findings obtained through a field study in information infrastructure of rural areas of Romania.

Design/methodology/approach

Researchers interviewed Romanian villagers using the same interpreter regarding a village's information needs and requirements. The village's information infrastructure was also surveyed. Because the literature on information infrastructures has focused primarily on macro issues (those national and international in scale), this project centered on micro (local) issues. A history of Romania's information infrastructure is presented and relevant literature reviewed. This is followed by a discussion of research methods used, and then the findings are presented and analyzed.

Findings

The research determined that global information infrastructure (GII) and national information infrastructure (NII) literature is incomplete and needs to give more attention to local and rural (micro level) issues. The findings also raise the question of whether the term equity is “misused” in today's discussions of national and international information infrastructures.

Research limitations/implications

This was not an exhaustive study. Further studies in the information infrastructure and information requirements of those who live in rural communities are needed in order to fully understand them.

Practical implications

Further research will help to identify ways to help improve rural information infrastructures in less developed nation/states.

Originality/value

Little attention in GII/NII literature has been given to the information infrastructure of rural or local areas (micro‐level issues). Focusing research on this subject will help those who live in areas like these.

Details

New Library World, vol. 107 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Jeanie M. Welch

The proliferation of electronic sources in reference departments has made them increasingly important in providing reference service to library patrons. These sources include the…

1027

Abstract

The proliferation of electronic sources in reference departments has made them increasingly important in providing reference service to library patrons. These sources include the online public access catalog, electronic databases (both indexes and full‐text databases), and the Internet. Much has been written on evaluation of reference librarians in the traditional areas of reference desk service, the use of print sources, and bibliographic instruction. Discusses the establishment of guidelines for assessment of reference librarians’ effectiveness in providing service to patrons using electronic sources and methods of assessing individual effectiveness.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

Keywords

Content available
230

Abstract

Details

Library Hi Tech News, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0741-9058

Book part
Publication date: 1 May 2019

Jeanie Austin

Possibilities for self-representation for transgender (trans) and gender non-conforming (GNC) youth must be conceptualized in relation to youths’ placement within frames of power…

Abstract

Possibilities for self-representation for transgender (trans) and gender non-conforming (GNC) youth must be conceptualized in relation to youths’ placement within frames of power. Powerful institutional forces in youths’ lives include schools and policing and, as is evidenced by youths’ statements, extend to mass media portrayals. Library approaches that reify the inclusion of representative texts do not adequately meet the needs of trans and GNC youth. As a profession, librarianship must reflect on ideological approaches to gendered embodiment to push against an ongoing repetition of institutional harms done to trans and GNC youth.

This chapter offers examinations of information needs, complex online worlds, and incorporation of histories made invisible by power alongside critical literacy skills as crucial aspects of providing services to all possibly or actually trans and GNC youth. It critically situates the circumstances of trans youths’ lives in relation to the effect that adult perceptions have on trans and GNC youths’ ability to access resources. It provides a framework for reflection on how young adult librarians often unconsciously limit library access by enacting gendered expectations that do not always match the possibility or actuality of youths’ experiences or self-conceptions. The chapter outlines modes of communication – through library materials, programs, community resources and partnerships – that convey deeper understandings of trans and GNC experiences to possibly or actually trans and GNC youth.

Details

LGBTQ+ Librarianship in the 21st Century: Emerging Directions of Advocacy and Community Engagement in Diverse Information Environments
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-474-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2021

Jeanie Austin and Emily Jacobson

Justification for, and implementation of, jail and prison library service is often based on philosophies that aim to ostensibly “correct” a person’s moral character and “improve”…

Abstract

Justification for, and implementation of, jail and prison library service is often based on philosophies that aim to ostensibly “correct” a person’s moral character and “improve” their potential as a productive member of society. These models tend to overlook people’s racial and cultural knowledges, ignore people’s existing humanity, and disregard or fail to acknowledge the racist systems of policing and institutionalization that are often responsible for someone landing in a carceral setting. Models that do not normalize policing, criminalization, and incarceration are needed in order for jail and prison library services to be meaningful to incarcerated patrons.

This chapter draws from the authors’ experience with local level jails to develop a patron-centered model of library services. Patron-centered services prioritize the humanity and interests of patrons who are incarcerated. By centering a recognition of patrons’ humanity and engaging in collection development as a shared process, patron-centered services resist white supremacy and the reiteration of carceral logics of rehabilitation or punishment. The chapter includes a description of on the ground services, a review of the overarching approaches to library services in carceral settings, the ways in which librarians dehumanize their patrons through narratives of exceptionalism, and a model for implementing and evaluating patron-centered services.

Details

Exploring the Roles and Practices of Libraries in Prisons: International Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-861-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Jeanie M. Welch

This paper aims to discuss the viability of web server statistics for library‐generated web pages as measures of public service activity. For years librarians have gathered…

2115

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss the viability of web server statistics for library‐generated web pages as measures of public service activity. For years librarians have gathered, reported, and analyzed traditional measures such as reference transactions, patron visits, book and reserve item circulation, and interlibrary loan transactions. Since the advent of web‐based databases and services, some traditional usage statistics have declined. Such declines can have political and financial implications for libraries.

Design/methodology/approach

The author did a literature review, studied a suggested revision to the NISO Z39.7‐1995 Library Statistics standard that includes counting usage of library‐generated web pages, participated in a task force on web statistics, and analyzed library web site statistics at a university library.

Findings

The recommendations of a task force on reporting web page usage statistics in an academic library are discussed. The reporting of the usage of library‐generated web pages can be a useful indicator of increased patron contacts and provide a more complete picture of public service activities.

Research limitations/implications

This is a new area for library statistics, and its impact on the perceptions of libraries as sources of information in the digital age has yet to be proven.

Originality/value

This paper is useful to libraries which wish to integrate web page usage statistics into their output measures and reporting procedures.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

Keywords

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