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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2019

Dorota Leszczynska and Jean-Louis Chandon

Do female CEOs face a compensation gap? The purpose of this paper is to examine whether gender affects the total compensation of today’s CEOs, and whether it moderates ten…

Abstract

Purpose

Do female CEOs face a compensation gap? The purpose of this paper is to examine whether gender affects the total compensation of today’s CEOs, and whether it moderates ten factors influencing their total compensation.

Design/methodology/approach

Taking the 54 female CEOs cited in the US 2014 Fortune’s 1000 report, a matched sample of male CEOs was selected, matched according to the crosstab of age by education and by the sizes of the companies directed by these female CEOs.

Findings

Using four years’ worth of Fortune reports, between 2013 and 2016, this matched sample indicates that female CEOs are not discriminated against in terms of total compensation. However, eight factors do show a significant effect on total compensation. Using moderation analysis, the present study reveals how gender interacts with company size, sector, membership of outside boards and nature of previous experience.

Research limitations/implications

This paper addresses an important and under-researched gap, with contradictory findings in the existing literature, by compiling and testing the characteristics of male and female CEOs which are not cited in Fortune 1000 reports.

Originality/value

Arguably, this is therefore one of the first papers to study gender differences in total compensation among Fortune 1000 CEOs using a matched sample technique, based on a larger number of female CEOs and a larger number of years than any previous research.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 July 2020

Judith Hepner, Jean-Louis Chandon and Damyana Bakardzhieva

Shall luxury firms promote their sustainable development goals (SDGs)? What are the risks and the competitive advantages? Some answers from sustainability-oriented luxury…

Abstract

Purpose

Shall luxury firms promote their sustainable development goals (SDGs)? What are the risks and the competitive advantages? Some answers from sustainability-oriented luxury buyers are provided.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative and qualitative analysis from an online survey of 315 luxury buyers in 28 countries.

Findings

Sustainability-oriented luxury buyers want branding strategies aligned with the SDGs and rank SDGs in order of importance for the luxury industry. However, they are unable to rank consistently most brands based on their sustainability efforts. The Stella McCartney brand is a clear exception to the general findings: sustainability-oriented luxury buyers rank Stella the most sustainable luxury brand by a vast margin, show willingness to purchase more from this brand, recommend it and are ready to pay a premium.

Research limitations/implications

The paper uses partial ranking of 20 luxury brands because in pretests, luxury buyers found it difficult to provide a complete ranking of the sustainability efforts of all the brands. Further research in more cultural or geographical contexts is needed.

Originality/value

The research empirically provides an example of a successful marketing strategy leveraging the SDGs to meet sustainability-oriented luxury buyers with targeted actions and messaging to gain competitive advantage.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Houcine Akrout, Mbaye Fall Diallo, Wafa Akrout and Jean-Louis Chandon

This paper aims to develop and validate a scale measurement of trust in long-term relations, specifically in the maintenance phase, between buyers and sellers. Relying on…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop and validate a scale measurement of trust in long-term relations, specifically in the maintenance phase, between buyers and sellers. Relying on a cognitive conception, existing scales do not measure the affective trust occurring in the maintenance stage of the relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Three surveys were conducted with purchasing managers of enterprises in various business-to-business (B2B) sectors to build a bi-dimensional measurement scale of affective trust as a sentiment of security and affective attachment. For measurement scale development, established construction procedures were followed, including qualitative and quantitative surveys. The process can be summarized as: domain specification, generation of questionnaire items, empirical survey and iterative process of scale purification based on reliability assessment and validity checks.

Findings

The results indicate satisfactory psychometric properties of the new Affective Trust Scale (ATS). Furthermore, they demonstrate the scale’s measurement invariance across business sectors. The research confirms the importance of affective aspects of trust and supports the reliability and validity of the measure. Nomological validity assessment of the scale shows that sentiment of security-based trust impacts investment in business relationships.

Research limitations/implications

The ATS developed and tested in the B2B French context needs to be evaluated taking into account several limitations. First, the specific context was a sample of buyers in France experiencing lasting relationships, suggesting that an extension of the study to other countries would be desirable. Also, the ATS needs to be further validated and confirmed in other contexts, for instance, within buyer–supplier relationship intensity.

Practical implications

The ATS can help firms to identify key parameters in buyer–seller relationships. It is important for the seller to collect information to determine the stage of the relationship before spending money on targeting customers, as they may not be ready to broaden the scope of their contract. The ATS can be very useful for companies to assess the state of the relationship and the strength of the bond in a timely manner and, therefore, anticipate the relational orientation. Segmentation based on relational phases requires tailoring to each form of trust strategies and hence the accurate identification of the relationship phase could help to better categorize and subcategorize customers with respect to the sentiment of security and affective attachment degrees. Furthermore, an understanding of the two dimensions is useful for key account managers to adjust relationship management toward specific actions (e.g. sentiment of security and/or affective attachment). The ATS could be very useful to guide managers in taking the right decision, by focusing both on sentiment of security and affective attachment dimensions of affective trust.

Originality/value

Affective trust is important to B2B managers, who frequently struggle to build and maintain close relationships with customers and suppliers. This paper adds insights into the complex but important construct of trust. The scale could be used for empirical studies of affective trust in B2B relationships. It may also help marketing managers develop better relationships with partners.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2013

Mbaye Fall Diallo, Jean‐Louis Chandon, Gérard Cliquet and Jean Philippe

This paper aims to investigate how consumer and image factors as well as store familiarity influence store brand (SB) purchase behaviour. SBs are now widely offered by…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate how consumer and image factors as well as store familiarity influence store brand (SB) purchase behaviour. SBs are now widely offered by European mass retailers. However, consumer behaviour toward SBs is not yet clearly understood in all European markets.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analysed data collected from 266 respondents and used structural equation modelling to test the main hypotheses. They then carried out ANOVA and MANOVA analyses to test the effect of store familiarity on SB purchase behaviour.

Findings

Results indicate that store image perceptions, SB price‐image, value consciousness, and SB attitude have significant and positive influence on SB purchase behaviour. Store familiarity positively influences SB choice, but not SB purchase intention. None of the socio‐demographic variables (age, gender, household income, and family size) included as control variables have an effect on SB choice.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited because it did not account for the effect of product categories on SB purchase behaviour. Consequently, results cannot be determined for different product categories. It would also be appropriate to measure SB choice in a more concrete way, such as using scanner data.

Practical implications

Findings highlight the importance of value consciousness, store image perceptions, and SB price‐image on SB purchase behaviour. They also show greater popularity of SB products among consumers, including those with high household income.

Originality/value

There is increased value to retailers in studying how consumer and image factors jointly influence SB purchase behaviour, whilst also accounting for store familiarity instead of brand familiarity.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1997

Jean‐Louis Chandon, Pierre‐Yves Leo and Jean Philippe

Selling services supposes that customers and personnel meet. This service encounter is not haphazard. Behind each ordinary exchange, there are rules that everybody is…

Abstract

Selling services supposes that customers and personnel meet. This service encounter is not haphazard. Behind each ordinary exchange, there are rules that everybody is supposed to follow. This paper looks at the different components of service encounter that are relevant for assessing service quality. A dyadic face‐to‐face survey undertaken in local branches of the ANPE Agency (the French National Agency for Employment) studies the perceptions of both personnel and customers. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, proposes a scale measuring the dimensions of service encounter.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2012

Marc Mazodier, Pascale Quester and Jean‐Louis Chandon

Sport events organizers have recently undertaken to disclose to the general public instances where firms have conspired to ambush the official sponsors. In doing so, they…

Abstract

Purpose

Sport events organizers have recently undertaken to disclose to the general public instances where firms have conspired to ambush the official sponsors. In doing so, they have sought to sensitise audiences to sponsors' valuable contribution. However, what is the effect of such disclosure on ambush marketers' brands? This study aims to answer this question, using an experimental approach.

Design/methodology/approach

Two successive experiments were conducted. The first study used a student sample (n=120) and a fictitious brand. The second study used a before‐and‐after experiment with control groups (n=480), using four real brands and print disclosure articles. Data was collected from six French metropolitan areas and analysed using Repeated Measure ANOVA and MANOVA.

Findings

Ambush marketing disclosure is associated with lower attitudes towards the ambusher's brand. Two variables moderate this effect: involvement in the event and attitude towards sponsorship, both of which worsen the negative influence of ambush disclosure on audiences' attitudes.

Research limitations/implications

While the empirical work reflects one national context and one specific sport event, these findings are the first to empirically support the notion that disclosure of ambush practices adversely impacts ambushers' brand.

Practical implications

These results offer official sponsors and event organisers an effective alternative strategy to legal protection, with demonstrated effects on the core target audience of the event.

Originality/value

The literature has alluded to possible perverse effects of ambush marketing. This study is the first to draw an analogy with corrective advertising to test and demonstrate the impact of ambush disclosure on ambushers' brands.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 46 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2010

Boris Bartikowski, Katsuyuki Kamei and Jean‐Louis Chandon

This paper aims to investigate whether verbal rating scales are viable formats for attitude measurement through an application to Japanese consumers' product quality perceptions.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate whether verbal rating scales are viable formats for attitude measurement through an application to Japanese consumers' product quality perceptions.

Design/methodology/approach

The article notes theoretical differences between Likert‐based and Thurstone approaches to attitude measurement. The paper illustrates a Thurstone scale development process.

Findings

The new scale possesses nomological validity; it correctly predicts how consumer ethnocentrism relates to product quality evaluations for brands in different competitive situations.

Practical implications

The convenient, ready‐to‐apply verbal rating scale can measure Japanese consumers' perceptions of product quality. The article also offers survey researchers some practical guidance for developing their own verbal rating scales.

Originality/value

Verbal rating scales are rarely found in existing literature. This study sheds light on a frequently overlooked measurement scale format for measuring attitudes.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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