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Discusses the definitions and interpretations of community policing (CP) given in academic literature. Looks at the wider concept of “community”. Analyzes the responses of 31 police leaders and 144 police officers in British Columbia, Canada who gave their interpretations of CP. Finds that the two groups interpret CP in different ways. Suggests that research on police perceptions of CP should be conducted at every level of the hierarchy and that findings should be analyzed in the light of various structures (social, etc.) in which the officer is employed and with regard to the roles in which the officer must operate.
The structuration model linking macro‐ and micro‐level societal structures and individual actions in a reciprocal causality is applied to the analysis of the relationship…
The structuration model linking macro‐ and micro‐level societal structures and individual actions in a reciprocal causality is applied to the analysis of the relationship between immigrants' transnational entrepreneurship and their assimilation to the host society. Depending on immigrants' economic and sociocultural resources and their location in the economic and political structures of the host city/country where they reside and the home‐country/region they originate from, their transnational business engagements may combine with assimilation and ethnic entrepreneurship may not lead to integration into the host society. This argument is empirically illustrated by comparing three kinds of entrepreneurship and the (trans)national/ethnic commitments they generate. These three types are represented by New York Chinese global traders, Jamaican ethnic entrepreneurs, and Dominican small‐scale investors in home‐country businesses. Although these entrepreneurial activities do not exhaust the types of business pursued by these immigrants (there are also in New York local Chinese and Dominican entrepreneurs, and Jamaicans involved in business in their home‐country), they have been recognized and investigated in each group.