This paper aims to deal with a closer look into the nature and extent of consumer expenditure inequality in India to identify the major contributions those are embedded…
This paper aims to deal with a closer look into the nature and extent of consumer expenditure inequality in India to identify the major contributions those are embedded, particularly after the economic reforms. Relative contributions of major consumption items/sources to the overall expenditure inequality are quantitatively examined in terms of a decomposition exercise. Eventually, the paper investigates the relative marginal effects of expenditure components/sources on overall inequality.
Gini index is used to measure the degree of inequality in consumer expenditure. Contribution of each expenditure sources to overall inequality is estimated by using source decomposition technique of Gini index contributed by Lerman and Yitzhaki.
The study observes that the inequality in consumer expenditure has increased in both the rural and the urban parts of India during the post-reform period. Non-food expenditure is more unevenly distributed, and it has been found to be more pro-rich in nature. Expenditure on cereals and pulses still exhibits higher inequality-reducing effect in rural and urban India. Education and health-care expenses have been inequality-increasing in the country. Contribution of expenditure on miscellaneous consumer services, durable goods, education and health care to the overall expenditure inequality is significantly higher.
The study identifies the capacity of different expenditure sources towards increasing or decreasing the overall inequality which is crucial for better redistributive policies to be adopted to enhance the well-being of the economy in real sense.
Individuals earn their income from different sources in an economy. Persons being engaged with different occupations have different income levels. Welfare level thus…
Individuals earn their income from different sources in an economy. Persons being engaged with different occupations have different income levels. Welfare level thus varies from person to person. Obviously an indignant feeling arises out of interpersonal shortages of income which is viewed as relative deprivation of the person to whom shortages are inflicted. This paper attempts to analyse geometrically inter‐temporal variations in relative deprivation.
Temporal movement has been analysed in terms of iso‐deprivation curves.
Reduction in relative deprivation is the cherished goal of every welfare economy. But how it should be pursued is a matter of concern to the policy makers. In the present analysis five paths are discussed along which the deprivation level may be reduced. The most desirable path is identified.
Different components and their relative contributions to changes in relative deprivation have been identified in a geometrical decomposition framework. The analysis is of use in framing policies for reduction in relative deprivation and increase in social well‐being.
The case can be used to teach behavioural perspective of the entrepreneurship theory for the students of Master of Business Administration (MBA) level. The case may be equally important to teach the marketing and operational context to discuss the perspectives of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).
A young Indian professional had left his lucrative job in the pharma industry to start his own business of a small training centre that trained and placed young graduates with various pharmaceutical companies as medical sales representatives (MSRs). Without borrowing anything from the financial institutions, he plunged into the business in a rented room of a school in Kolkata, India. With every sincerity and path-breaking strategy, his vocational centre, named Carreograph Institute of Management Studies (CIMS) became number one in eastern India in training and placing MSRs and managers. With a number of hand-picked professionals from the industry, this young entrepreneur changed the concept of training by introducing short-term courses like Diploma in Pharmaceutical Management to technically prepare pharmacy undergraduates with professional skills and industry overview, Post Graduate Diploma in Pharmaceutical Management to cater to the contemporary management needs of the pharma industry. For the first time in India, Carreograph launched MBA in Pharmaceutical Management in the distance learning mode, and this strategy revolutionised the concept of management teaching in India. With a huge success in MBA, Carreograph was on the verge of launching another path-breaking course, i.e. Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) in pharma in the distance learning mode.
Expected learning outcomes
To analyse Tamal Chatterjee's entrepreneurial characteristics, motivations and expertise in the field and how these parameters support his proposed new venture, to consider the effectiveness of his entrepreneurial methods for finding out more about the proposed business area in which he is interested and to evaluate his idea of newly developed MBA and BBA programmes in terms of its expected acceptance among the student communities and consider if and when he should go ahead with expanding his current venture.
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The widespread use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) has had a significant effect on various groups and communities of people including micro, small and…
The widespread use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) has had a significant effect on various groups and communities of people including micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) and their owners/managers. The current study aims to analyze recent literature regarding adoption of ICTs by MSMEs. Further, it tries to locate gender within this broader context of diffusion of ICTs among MSMEs.
Using the thematic analysis approach, the research articles pertaining to six leading journals on ICTs, gender and entrepreneurship published during the time period from 2011 to 2019 are reviewed.
The literature selected for the study has been discussed under two primary categories, viz. “adoption of information and communication technologies for development (ICT4D) for business purposes” and “insights on gender in ICT4D use by MSMEs.”
The context-dependent nature of ICT use can enable future entrepreneurs to assess the scope of specific ICTs in given areas of operation. The gendered nature of ICTs helps to evaluate as well as question the empowerment potential of ICTs. The study emphasizes the need to account for historical specificities and transnational linkages in understanding access, adoption and use of ICT4D by women MSME entrepreneurs.
The study bridges together literature on ICT4D use by MSMEs and the role of gender in ICT-mediated entrepreneurial environments. While unraveling the interplay of power dynamics in such environments, the scope for future research in terms of tapping into the content of information exchanges and exploring the implications of “dark side of internet” for women MSME entrepreneurs is also indicated.