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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Dawa Dolma Bhutia, Yeka Zhimo, Ramen Kole and Jayanta Saha

The purpose of this paper was to determine the antifungal activities of different solvent extracts of common plants in vitro and in vivo against banana anthracnose fungus…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to determine the antifungal activities of different solvent extracts of common plants in vitro and in vivo against banana anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum musae (Berk & M.A. Curtis) Arx, and to investigate its effects on the pathogen and identify the bio active component(s).

Design/methodology/approach

Extracts were obtained from leaves, tender shoots, rhizomes, bulbs, seeds and fruits of 42 naturally growing plant species following hot sequential extraction. Preliminary screening of the solvent extracts was done based on the inhibition of radial mycelial growth of C. musae following poison food technique and conidial germination inhibition by cavity slide technique. The selected extracts were assessed for their effect on harvested banana in reducing anthracnose during storage. The active components in the bio-active fractions of plant extract were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy.

Findings

Methanol extracted a larger quantity of material (between 6.9 and 12.5 per cent) than hexane or chloroform, and all its extracts were active against the test pathogen with mycelial growth inhibition ranging from 13.70 to 88.89 per cent. Zingiber officinale rhizome extract as well as Polyalthia longifolia and Clerodendrum inerme leaf extracts exhibited more than 80 per cent inhibition of mycelial growth. Total inhibition of spore germination of C. musae was recorded in Z. officinale and P. longifolia extracts at 0.3 per cent w/v and 0.5 per cent w/v concentration, respectively, while only 68 per cent spore inhibition was recorded in C. inerme at 0.5 per cent w/v concentration. Of the three plant species, Z. officinale had the best antifungal activity (18.0 per cent disease incidence; 2.2 disease severity scale) when banana fruits were dipped in the extract at a concentration of 0.5 per cent w/v at 5 days of storage in ambient condition (80-82 per cent R.H., 27 ± 1°C). The bio-active compounds in the extract of Z. officinale were identified as alpha-curcumene and zingerone.

Originality/value

Based on the antifungal activity, plant extract of Z. officinale can be used as an effective alternative to chemicals in controlling anthracnose pathogen in harvested banana.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 June 2013

Venkatesan Chakrapani, Ram Kamei, Hoineilam Kipgen and Jayanta Kumar Kh

The authors aimed to examine the incarceration experiences of injecting drug users in accessing harm reduction, and HIV‐related services inside prisons in India.

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Abstract

Purpose

The authors aimed to examine the incarceration experiences of injecting drug users in accessing harm reduction, and HIV‐related services inside prisons in India.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted three focus groups with a purposive sample of 23 formerly incarcerated male IDUs and four key informant interviews with a former police official, a drug dealer and service providers. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative method.

Findings

Participants reported availability of alcohol and injectable or oral drugs such as heroin, dextropropoxyphene, and marijuana inside prisons. Inmates obtained drugs and clean syringes (one syringe bought for 2.5‐4 USD) through prison staff, and collected used syringes and needles from the dustbins in prison sickrooms. Needles and syringes were reused and shared. Prisons did not have needle and syringe programmes, detoxification, overdose management or opioid substitution treatment. Drug‐using prison inmates faced several challenges in accessing antiretroviral treatment and HIV testing.

Practical implications

The authors' findings emphasize the need to protect the health of injection drug‐using inmates by introducing harm reduction programmes and removing barriers to HIV testing and antiretroviral treatment.

Originality/value

This study illustrates, for the first time, the contexts behind high risk injecting drug use behaviours among prison inmates in India. It also highlights the lack of availability of harm reduction services such as needle and syringe programmes, drug detoxification and opioid substitution treatment inside prisons. Further, it demonstrates the difficulties faced by HIV‐positive prison inmates in getting timely and uninterrupted antiretroviral treatment.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

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