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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2010

Javed G. Hussain, Jonathan M. Scott and Harry Matlay

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact that entrepreneurship education can have on succession in ethnic minority family firms that operate in the highly…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact that entrepreneurship education can have on succession in ethnic minority family firms that operate in the highly competitive UK economy.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper employs a complex conceptual model of ethnic minority graduates' economic activities and outlines the possible influence that entrepreneurship education can have on succession in their family firms. An illustrative case study is presented of an ethnic minority graduate who returned to work in the family firm.

Findings

It emerges that entrepreneurship education provision in UK HEIs is insufficiently customised to, and focused on, the specific entrepreneurial needs of graduates. Educators should take into account the complex socio‐economic and cultural differences between native and ethnic minority learning environments. Effective entrepreneurship education emerges as crucial to the survival and growth of ethnic minority family businesses in the UK and could contribute positively to ownership transfer in this type of firm.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed theoretical model has not been empirically tested and it is only indicative of the impact that entrepreneurship education could have on succession in small ethnic minority family businesses in the UK.

Originality/value

Although prior research has explored various aspects of ownership succession, this article focuses specifically on the impact that entrepreneurship education can have on succession in small ethnic minority family firms.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 52 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2008

Javed G. Hussain, Jonathan M. Scott and Paul D. Hannon

The purpose of this paper is to profile the characteristics and entrepreneurial motivations of graduate entrepreneurs from black and minority ethnic (BME) communities.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to profile the characteristics and entrepreneurial motivations of graduate entrepreneurs from black and minority ethnic (BME) communities.

Design/methodology/approach

To gather the data, the authors interviewed selected individuals from within the BME community (including current students and graduates from various universities, predominantly in the West Midlands, UK), analysed the transcripts and compared the findings with the review of literature.

Findings

Evidence suggests that BME graduate entrepreneurs were diverse in terms of their characteristics: size, gender, ethnicity and when they started the business. Almost all interviewees had worked for someone before they started their business. The two most compelling motivations for start up were “being your own boss”, especially for Indians and Bangladeshis; and making more money (31 per cent), in particular for African Caribbeans. Over half of interviewees started a business in a sector in which they had prior experience, knowledge or skills. Two thirds of interviewees obtained advice from family and friends, while just over a third had completed any kind of training or course.

Research limitations/implications

The sample of BME graduate entrepreneurs in this study was both small and selective. It was not statistically significant, nor did it represent a random selection of the BME graduate entrepreneurs in the UK or the respective population mix. Hence, there is a need for a larger scale study and the inclusion of a white control group.

Originality/value

This study provides an insight into characteristics and entrepreneurial motivations of BME graduate entrepreneurs. Though the results of this study are indicative, there is a compelling case for further research into this relatively unexplored group.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 50 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2010

Javed G. Hussain, Jonathan M. Scott, Richard T. Harrison and Cindy Millman

The purpose of this exploratory paper is to theorise and examine gender differences in the impact of financial capital on Chinese firms' growth, and investigate the role…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this exploratory paper is to theorise and examine gender differences in the impact of financial capital on Chinese firms' growth, and investigate the role of guanxi (connections and networks) in the process of obtaining finance.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured questionnaire is used to collect comprehensive financial data from 18 women to 69 men, which is analysed empirically.

Findings

Women appear to be no more disadvantaged from obtaining finance than men in China and in some respects appear to be in a better position. Both women‐ and men‐led firms are significantly stronger in relation to having access to enough finance to grow than at the start‐up phase. A majority of participants in this study used guanxi to access finance. Furthermore, the paper finds that guanxi is used equally by men and women, and that guanxi‐sourced finance comprised a significant proportion of the overall capital obtained.

Research limitations/implications

One major limitation of the study is that, of the 87 questionnaires returned, 21 per cent are women and 79 per cent are men and, although the findings are not representative or generalisable, the results do suggest a number of possible avenues for future research.

Originality/value

The paper has illuminated the under‐explored area of the financing of growth in women‐led firms in China. This research agenda is particularly important because small‐ and medium‐sized enterprise finance in China is a key need‐to‐know area, there is a paucity of specific research on financing women entrepreneurs in China and of the phenomenal rise of women's entrepreneurship in China.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2011

Dilek Demirbas, Javed G. Hussain and Harry Matlay

The paper aims to examine the barriers to innovation, as perceived and experienced by owner‐managers of Turkish small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs).

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to examine the barriers to innovation, as perceived and experienced by owner‐managers of Turkish small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on an empirical investigation of 224 SMEs operating in Turkey. Emergent results were analysed using a logit regression model to explore barriers to innovation as perceived and experienced by these owner‐managers.

Findings

The results reveal that a lack of government research and development policy represents a formal barrier to SME innovation in Turkey. The existence of a sizeable and thriving underground economy in this country acts as an informal barrier that impacts negatively upon investment in, and increases the cost of innovation in SMEs. In addition, a lack of appropriate sources of finance and skill shortages emerged as significant variables to affect the innovation decisions of SME owner‐managers in Turkey.

Research limitations/implications

The research sample of 224 businesses, chosen from a population of approximately two million SMEs in Turkey, is relatively small and is not representative of all regions and urban areas in this country. Therefore, this research sample is not a random or statistically significant selection of Turkey's SME sector. The findings of this research have implications for policy makers, practitioners and academics in this and similar countries.

Originality/value

The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of the actual and perceived barriers to innovation experienced by owner‐managers of Turkish SMEs. Development of effective government policies to support innovative SMEs could significantly enhance the competitiveness of the Turkish economy.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 19 November 2018

Javed Hussain, Samuel Salia and Amin Karim

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between financial literacy, access to finance and growth among small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) within…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between financial literacy, access to finance and growth among small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) within the Midlands region of the UK. It assesses whether financial literacy assists SMEs to overcome information asymmetry, mitigates the need for collateral, optimizes capital structure and improves access to finance.

Design/methodology/approach

To gain a deeper insight into the complex relationship between financial literacy, access to finance and growth, a qualitative research is carried out among SMEs that have operated for over five years or longer. Using the purposive sampling technique, 37 firms were selected based on size, location and characteristics, mainly from the city of Birmingham and the joining conurbations. Open-ended and a combination of dichotomous questions were used for the survey. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analyzed.

Findings

Financial literacy is an interconnecting resource that mitigates information asymmetry and collateral deficit when evaluating loan applications, therefore financial literacy should be part of school curriculum. The analysis suggests enhanced financial literacy, reduces monitoring cost and serves to optimize firms’ capital structure that positively impacts on SMEs growth. Financial management knowledge is recognized as the core resource that aids an effective decision making by owners of SMEs.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of this research is the small sample that limits its generalization. Its findings could be enhanced by a larger sample and by conducting comparative studies in other regions or economies. SMEs growth is seen as a strategic policy to stimulate enterprise but the finance gap tends to constrain that objective. The UK Government’s effort to improve access to finance and to mitigate excessive collateral demands by lenders has proved elusive. This empirical research provides evidence that financial literacy enhances access to finance and, in turn, promotes growth potentials.

Practical implications

The results of this study advocate the provision of financial literacy at schools and target support for SMEs to acquire financial management skills in order to mitigate information asymmetry between lenders and borrowers.

Social implications

Findings suggest that financial literacy mediates access to finance, enables enterprises to use optimal financial structure to mitigate business failure, creates employment and reduces public sector support for social benefits.

Originality/value

This study is novel in that it examines financial literacy and its implications for access to finance and firm growth in the UK. The study is an effort to highlight the role of financial information in mitigating barriers to finance for SMEs.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2021

Muzhar Javed, Muhammad Waheed Akhtar, Khalid Hussain, Muhammad Junaid and Fauzia Syed

Drawing on stakeholder theory, this study examines the relationship between responsible leadership and its macro-, meso- and micro-level outcomes. Further, this study…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on stakeholder theory, this study examines the relationship between responsible leadership and its macro-, meso- and micro-level outcomes. Further, this study investigates the moderating role of authenticity on the relationship between responsible leadership and its multi-level effects, i.e. relational social capital, corporate social performance and community citizenship behaviour among employees.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted four field studies using the quantitative methodology to test the hypotheses. In study 1 (N = 236), by adopting a multi-wave and multi-source research design, the authors examine the relationship between responsible leadership, authenticity and relational social capital. In study 2 (N = 203), by adopting a multi-wave research design, the authors examine the relationship between responsible leadership, authenticity and corporate social performance. In study 3 (N = 203), by adopting a multi-wave and multi-source research design, the authors examine the relationship between responsible leadership, authenticity and employees' community citizenship behaviour. In study 4 (N = 257), by adopting a multi-wave and multi-source research design, the authors capture the impact of responsible leadership on outcomes (social capital, corporate social performance and community citizenship behaviour) with a boundary condition of authenticity.

Findings

The authors find that responsible leadership enhances relational social capital, improves a firm's social performance and develops community citizenship behaviour among employees. Further, the study finds that authenticity positively moderates the relationship between responsible leadership and its multi-level outcomes.

Originality/value

First, it is a maiden study to investigate the multi-level outcomes of RL in a series of three empirical studies. Second, it contributes to RL literature by testing a unique moderating role of authenticity between RL and its multi-level outcomes of relational social capital, corporate social performance and employees' community citizenship behaviour. This study also provides empirical evidence for the multi-level implications of stakeholder theory.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2021

Navjot Sandhu and Javed Hussain

This paper investigates the mediating role of access to finance and entrepreneurial education for small and marginal farmers (SMFs) in the Indian northern state of Punjab…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper investigates the mediating role of access to finance and entrepreneurial education for small and marginal farmers (SMFs) in the Indian northern state of Punjab. Furthermore, it examines the inter-mediatory role of entrepreneurs and the access to finance in the promotion of innovation, development and consequently poverty alleviation.

Design/methodology/approach

To gain a deeper insight, we used a purposive sampling technique, involving in-depth, face-to-face interviews based on a semi-structured questionnaire amongst 185 farmers from the state of the Punjab in India. The combination of open ended and dichotomous questions amenable to the Likert scale, captured responses and the transcribed questionnaires were thematically analysed.

Findings

Using the analysis of the quantitative and qualitative responses, we explain the cause and consequences of the finance gap and the impact of poverty on household income and the debt levels of SMFs. The findings suggest that the expanding pool of SMFs is due to land ownership fragmentation that disenfranchises SMFs from accessing adequate finance thus limiting their ability to adapt to technological innovations, and therefore limiting their productivity and growth. This essentially limits their ability to transform their economic and social wellbeing. The findings from the data analysis suggest a lack of access to finance negatively impacts on SMFs' ability to use innovative practices, technologies and productivity. This adversely affects income level, access to education and social goods to propel them out of poverty. The findings advocate that government policy should focus on land reforms, which provide adequate access to finance to enable the adaption of technology and an access to markets to empower marginal farmers.

Research limitations/implications

Land fragmentation resulting with population growth in emerging economies continuously expands SMFs. To improve efficiency, productivity and entrepreneurial traits amongst SMFs, it is a pre-requisite to have an agile economy. However, in emerging economies such as India, the responses of 185 farmers suggest, a bespoke policy to promote the interest of SMFs through enabling them access to finance, technologies, training and education, continues to prove elusive. This novel empirical research provides evidence that demands that policymakers, commercial institutions and donors need to respond to the needs of SMFs to ensure food security and an optimal utilisation of farmland. The limitation of this research is that the sample is from one country, which limits its generalisation. The findings of this study could be enhanced by conducting comparative studies in other regions or economies.

Originality/value

This empirical study examined the barriers to enterprise for SMFs in the Indian Punjab; it examined the causes and consequences and the implications for food security for India. The findings of this study highlight the importance of developing the entrepreneurial capabilities of SMFs through effective education, training and above all through an adequate access to finance to enable them to adapt their technology. Furthermore, the findings make a case as to why SMFs are an integral part of the food chain and why it is necessary to enhance their efficiency, productivity and their access to finance.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Samuel Salia, Javed Hussain, Ishmael Tingbani and Oluwaseun Kolade

Against the background of growing concerns that development interventions can sometimes be a zero sum game, the purpose of this paper is to examine the unintended…

Abstract

Purpose

Against the background of growing concerns that development interventions can sometimes be a zero sum game, the purpose of this paper is to examine the unintended consequences of microfinance for women empowerment in Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs a participatory mixed-method approach including household questionnaire surveys, focus group discussions and key informant interviews to investigate the dynamics of microfinance effects on women in communities of different vulnerability status in Ghana.

Findings

The results of hierarchical regression, triadic closure and thematic analyses demonstrate that the economic benefits of microfinance for women is also directly associated with conflicts amongst spouses, girl child labour, polygyny and the neglect of perceived female domestic responsibilities due to women’s devotion to their enterprises.

Originality/value

In the light of limited empirical evidence on potentially negative impacts of women empowerment interventions in Africa, this paper fills a critical gap in knowledge that will enable NGOs, policy makers and other stakeholders to design and implement more effective interventions that mitigate undesirable consequences.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2008

Javed Hussain, Harry Matlay and Jonathan M. Scott

The purpose of this paper is to set out to evaluate the financial education needs of ethnic minority SMEs in the West Midlands region of the United Kingdom.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to set out to evaluate the financial education needs of ethnic minority SMEs in the West Midlands region of the United Kingdom.

Design/methodology/approach

A postal survey was used to investigate the financial needs of owner/managers in 64 ethnic minority SMEs and a control sample of 23 non‐ethnic SMEs.

Findings

The results show that owner/managers of micro‐businesses have lower educational achievements as well as higher financial education needs than their counterparts in small and medium‐sized firms. In contrast, owner/managers in small and medium‐sized businesses have relatively higher educational achievements and a better appreciation of the role of financial education. Similar trends were observed in non‐ethnic SMEs in the control sample.

Originality/value

This article makes an empirically rigorous contribution to a relatively under researched aspect of SME research. The authors recommend that government agencies collaborate with leaders of ethnic minority communities to raise awareness of the benefits of education in general and financial education in particular.

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2012

Navjot Sandhu, Javed Hussain and Harry Matlay

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the entrepreneurship education and training (EET) needs of small family businesses operating in the agricultural sector of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the entrepreneurship education and training (EET) needs of small family businesses operating in the agricultural sector of the Indian economy.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through a survey of 122 agricultural family firms in the Indian state of Punjab. Responses were analysed using descriptive statistical methods to establish causal relationships between key variables and EET needs in these family firms.

Findings

Results show that owner/managers of small family businesses have low levels of EET and hence higher needs. Lack of sufficient funds and low awareness about the availability of training are the most significant challenges for these family firms in accessing financial education and training. Factors such as level of education and training of the owner/manager were found to be major determinants of family firms’ take up of EET.

Originality/value

This research paper makes an empirically rigorous contribution to a relatively under‐researched aspect of small family businesses operating in India. The results established that EET is a prerequisite for economic growth in the agricultural sector of the Indian economy.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 54 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

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